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2014 | 14 | 58 | 306-319
Article title

Nowe trendy w obrazowaniu raka stercza metodą ultrasonografii przezodbytniczej

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Title variants
EN
Novel trends in transrectal ultrasound imaging of prostate gland carcinoma
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Abstracts
EN
Carcinoma of the prostate gland is the most common neoplasm in men. Its treatment depends on multiple factors among which local staging plays a significant role. The basic method is transrectal ultrasound imaging. This examination enables imaging of the prostate gland and its abnormalities, but it also allows ultrasound-guided biopsies to be conducted. A conventional gray-scale ultrasound examination enables assessment of the size, echostructure and outlines of the anatomic capsule, but in many cases, neoplastic lesions cannot be observed. For this reason, new sonographic techniques are implemented in order to facilitate detectability of cancer. The usage of contrast agents during transrectal ultrasound examination must be emphasized since, in combination with color Doppler, it facilitates detection of cancerous lesions by visualizing flow which is not observable without contrast enhancement. Elastography, in turn, is a different solution. It uses the differences in tissue elasticity between a neoplastic region and normal prostatic parenchyma that surrounds it. This technique facilitates detection of lesions irrespective of their echogenicity and thereby supplements conventional transrectal examinations. However, the size of the prostate gland and its relatively far location from the transducer may constitute limitations to the effectiveness of elastography. Moreover, the manner of conducting such an examination depends on the examiner and his or her subjective assessment. Another method, which falls within the novel, popular trend of combining imaging methods, is fusion of magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal sonography. The application of multidimensional magnetic resonance imaging, which is currently believed to be the best method for prostate cancer staging, in combination with the availability of a TRUS examination and the possibility of monitoring biopsies in real-time sonography is a promising alternative, but it is associated with higher costs and longer duration of the examination. This paper presents the most important novel trends in transrectal imaging in prostate cancer diagnosis based on the review of the articles available in the PubMed base and published after 2010.
PL
Rak stercza to najczęstszy nowotwór u mężczyzn. Sposób leczenia zależy od wielu czynników, wśród których bardzo ważną rolę odgrywa ocena miejscowego stopnia zaawansowania. Podstawową metodą jest tutaj ultrasonografia przezodbytnicza. Badanie to pozwala nie tylko na zobrazowanie stercza i jego nieprawidłowości, lecz także na przeprowadzenie biopsji pod kontrolą ultrasonografii. Klasyczne badanie ultrasonograficzne w skali szarości umożliwia ocenę wielkości, echostruktury stercza i zarysów torebki anatomicznej, ale w wielu przypadkach nie uwidacznia zmian nowotworowych. Z tego powodu wprowadza się nowe technologie ultrasonograficzne, aby poprawić wykrywalność raka. Warto zwrócić uwagę na zastosowanie środków kontrastujących w trakcie badania przezodbytniczego, które wraz z obrazowaniem kolorowym dopplerem poprawiają wykrywalność raka: uwidaczniają przepływy niestwierdzalne bez wzmocnienia kontrastowego. Innym rozwiązaniem jest elastografia, wykorzystująca różnicę sztywności w obszarze nowotworowym i w zdrowym, otaczającym chorą tkankę miąższu stercza. Technika ta pozwala na wykrycie zmian niezależnie od ich echogeniczności, dzięki czemu uzupełnia klasyczne badanie przezodbytnicze. Ograniczać skuteczność elastografii mogą wielkość stercza i jego dość dalekie położenie w stosunku do głowicy. Z kolei sposób wykonania badania zależy od doświadczenia badającego i jego subiektywnej oceny. Inną metodą wpisującą się w modny obecnie trend łączenia metod obrazowania jest fuzja rezonansu magnetycznego i badania ultrasonograficznego przezodbytniczego. Wykorzystanie obrazowania wielopłaszczyznowego rezonansu, uznawanego obecnie za najlepszą metodę oceny stopnia miejscowego zaawansowania raka, w połączeniu z dostępnością TRUS i łatwością monitorowania biopsji pod kontrolą ultrasonografii w czasie rzeczywistym to bardzo obiecująca alternatywa – choć wiąże się ze znacząco większym kosztem i wydłużonym czasem badania. Na podstawie przeglądu artykułów dostępnych w bazie PubMed opublikowanych po 2010 roku przedstawiono najważniejsze kierunki rozwoju badania transrektalnego w diagnostyce raka stercza.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
14
Issue
58
Pages
306-319
Physical description
Contributors
  • Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 18, 31-531 Cracow, Poland., tomasz@urologia.waw.pl
  • Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic
  • Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland
  • Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-c2a24c06-0056-4385-ad69-bf3349319138
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