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2014 | 14 | 1 | 43-49
Article title

Analiza czynników chroniących przed samobójstwem

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Title variants
EN
Analysis of the factors protecting against suicide
Languages of publication
EN PL
Abstracts
EN
Suicidal behaviours are a severe problem of the contemporary society and a challenge for people dealing with the development of therapeutic and preventive programmes in suicidology. Many detailed and multi-aspect analyses of functioning of the people at risk of suicide are carried out within scientific research as well as various risk factors of suicidal attempts and committed suicides. Far fewer studies are focussed on the factors protecting against suicide, referred to as buffer or protective factors. For passwords: protective factor, suicide the number of records in the PubMed base amounts to 227, while for risk factor, suicide – 11 299. The objectives of this review of literature comprise: analysis of various factors protecting against suicide and attempt to assess their efficacy. The study involves reports and results of the research presented in English literature. Separately discussed were external and internal protective factors, and a number of publications on their subject were included. Most of research reports refer to preventive role of the family, social support, capability to cope with problems and stress, and self-estimation. An important role is ascribed to perception of causes to live. To a slightly less extent the researchers deal with a protective role of religion, pregnancy, hobby, and involvement in social activities. What has been so far ambiguous and little known is the correlation between sports practice and reduction of suicidal behaviours. The final part of the article presents the results of the studies on the seldom analysed protective factors, such as one’s attitude to life and death, fear of death, and sensitivity to pain, the efficacy of which in suicide prevention requires further research. While grouping the protective factors, their usefulness in the creation of supporting systems and preventive programmes was taken into account, passing over those whose efficacy had not been documented.
PL
Zachowania samobójcze są poważnym problemem współczesnego społeczeństwa i wyzwaniem dla osób zajmujących się opracowywaniem programów terapeutycznych i profilaktycznych z dziedziny suicydologii. W ramach badań naukowych podejmuje się liczne szczegółowe i wieloaspektowe analizy funkcjonowania osób zagrożonych samobójstwem, a także różnych czynników ryzyka prób samobójczych i samobójstw dokonanych. Zdecydowanie mniej badań dotyczy czynników chroniących przed samobójstwem, inaczej buforowych, protekcyjnych. Dla hasła protective factor, suicide liczba rekordów w bazie PubMed wynosi 227, podczas gdy dla risk factor, suicide – 11 299. Cele niniejszego przeglądu piśmiennictwa to analiza rozmaitych czynników chroniących przed samobójstwem i próba oceny ich skuteczności. W pracy uwzględniono doniesienia i wyniki badań zawarte w literaturze anglojęzycznej. Odrębnie omówiono czynniki ochronne zewnętrzne i wewnętrzne, uwzględniono liczbę publikacji na ich temat. Najwięcej doniesień naukowych dotyczy prewencyjnej roli rodziny, wsparcia społecznego, umiejętności radzenia sobie z problemami i stresem oraz samooceny. Istotną rolę przypisuje się percepcji powodów do życia. W nieco mniejszym stopniu badacze zajmują się ochronną rolą religii, ciąży, hobby i zaangażowania w aktywności społeczne. Niejednoznaczny i mało dotychczas zbadany jest związek uprawiania sportu z redukcją zachowań suicydalnych. W końcowej części artykułu zaprezentowano wyniki badań nad zdecydowanie rzadziej analizowanymi czynnikami ochronnymi, takimi jak postawa wobec życia i śmierci, lęk przed śmiercią i wrażliwość na ból, których skuteczność w zapobieganiu samobójstwom wymaga dalszych dociekań. W trakcie grupowania czynników ochronnych kierowano się ich przydatnością w tworzeniu systemów wsparcia i programów profilaktycznych – z pominięciem tych o nieudokumentowanej skuteczności.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
14
Issue
1
Pages
43-49
Physical description
Contributors
  • Oddział Neurologii, Dolnośląski Szpital Specjalistyczny im. T. Marciniaka – CMR, ul. Traugutta 116, 50-420 Wrocław, tel.: 71 789 01 86, 794 263 970., jkrawczyk@wp.eu
  • Klinika Psychiatrii Młodzieżowej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-c2204f29-6ca2-40d3-84b4-f6dc236ff68c
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