Effect of row spacing and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of rice varieties
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Rice (Oryza species) is a unique annual cereal food crop growing under flooded condition up to 3000 m.a.s.l and pH 4.5-8.5. Production of rice depends on several factors: climate and crop management. Varieties had significant influence on grain yield, Protein content, number of spike and 1000 grain weight. Total dry matter and crop growth rate observed due to interaction of N rate and varieties. Low tillering varieties particularly short duration ones gave low number of panicles m-2 while high tillering cultivars caused competition and more shading consequently low yield. The optimum plant spacing of rice must be identified to obtain high yield, through different utilization of below and above ground resources. Nitrogen availability involved directly or indirectly in the enlargement and division of new cells, and production of tissues which is responsible for increase in growth characteristics particularly tiller numbers, finally determining the number of panicles and spikelet’s. N fertilization of rice is affected by varieties, soil type and climatic fluctuations between years, mainly environmental temperature. The interaction effect of varieties, N rate and row spacing significantly determine 1000 grain weight, straw yield and grain yield of rice.
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