PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2021 | 153 | 2 | 93-123
Article title

Dung beetles: key to healthy pasture? An overview

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) do just what their name suggests: they use the manure, or dung of other animals in some unique ways! Diversity of the coprine members is reflected through the differences in morphology, resource relocation and foraging activity. They use one of the three broad nesting strategies for laying eggs (Dwellers, Rollers, Tunnelers and Kleptocoprids) each with implications for ecological function. These interesting insects fly around in search of manure deposits, or pats from herbivores like cows and elephants. Through manipulating faeces during the feeding process, dung beetles initiate a series of ecosystem functions ranging from secondary seed dispersal to nutrient cycling and parasite suppression. The detritus-feeding beetles play a small but remarkable role in our ecosystem. They feed on manure, use it to provide housing and food for their young, and improve nutrient cycling and soil structure. Many of the functions provide valuable ecosystem services such as biological pest control, soil fertilization. Members of the genus Onthophagus have been widely proposed as an ideal group for biodiversity inventory and monitoring; they satisfy all of the criteria of an ideal focal taxon, and they have already been used in ecological research and biodiversity survey and conservation work in many regions of the world. The existence of distinct communities of coprophagous beetles, which differ in their species composition, species-abundance relations and efficiency of dung removal, plays a major role in the breakthrough in pasture and livestock management. They as well play roles in pollination and trophic management. The dung beetles release strategy group concluded that they also result in the reduction of greenhouse gas emitted from agricultural sector like many others; these insects too have medicinal value. Even after the presence of high endemicity, they are still somewhat at back place in an adjunct of apt knowledge on them with very few studies done on them, the need of the hour being to utilise this potential as bioresource in the interest of society and socio-economic value. Present paper is an attempt to provide an overview on the knowledge generated and what we could do so far on the dung beetle diversity in the Dairy Farm of Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama Campus, Narendrapur, South 24 Parganas & buffaloshed Naihati, North 24- Parganas, West Bengal.
Discipline
Year
Volume
153
Issue
2
Pages
93-123
Physical description
Contributors
author
  • Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Barasat Government College, 10, K.N.C. Road, Barasat, Kolkata – 7000124, India
author
  • Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Barasat Government College, 10, K.N.C. Road, Barasat, Kolkata – 7000124, India
author
  • Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Barasat Government College, 10, K.N.C. Road, Barasat, Kolkata – 7000124, India
  • IRDM Faculty Centre, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Narendrapur, Kolkata – 700103, India
References
  • [1] Agoglitta, R., Moreno, C. E., Zunino, M., Bonsignori, G., and Dellacasa. M. 2012. Cumulative annual dung beetle diversity in Mediterranean seasonal environments. Ecological Research, 27(2): 387–395
  • [2] Ali S.M.S., Naeem, M. Baig, F, Shahzad, A, Zia, A. 2015. New records, distributional notes and species diversity of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) from Pothohar Plateau of Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3(3): 01-06
  • [3] Andresen, E. 2002a. Effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle communities and functional consequences for plant regeneration. Ecography, 26: 87–97
  • [4] Andresen, E. 2002b.Dung beetles in a Central Amazonian rainforest and their ecological role as secondary seed dispersers. Ecological Entomology 27: 257–270
  • [5] Arrow, G. J. 1931. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma: Coleoptera: Lamellicornia: Part III Coprinae. Publ. Taylor and Francis, London, 428pp.
  • [6] Bahrami, F., Arbabi, M. Vafaei Shoushtari, R. and Kazemi, S. 2011. Mesostigmatic mites associated with Coleoptera and biodiversity calculation of these mites phoretic on dung beetles in Golestan Province (North of Iran). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 9 (3): 345-366
  • [7] Balthasar, V. 1963a. Monographie der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaearktischen und Orientalischen Region. (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Verlag der Tschechoslowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Prag, I: 1-391, 137 figs., 24 pls.
  • [8] Balthasar, V. (1963b). Monographie der Scarabaeidae und Aphodiidae der Palaearktischen und Orientalischen Region. (Coleoptera: Lamellicornia), Verlag der Tschechoslowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Prag, I1: 1-627, 226 figs., 16 pls.
  • [9] Barbero, E., Palestrini, C. and Rolando, A. 1999. Dung beetle conservation: effects of habitat and resources election (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Insect Conservation, 3, 75–84
  • [10] Bath, D. K. M., Heinzer-Mutz, E. M. and Elster 1994. Colonization and degradation of cattle dung: Aspects of sampling, faecal composition, and artificially formed parts, Environmental Entomology, 23: 571-578
  • [11] .Bertone, M., Green, J., Washburn, S., Poore, M., Sorenson, C. and Watson, W. A., 2005. Seasonal Activity and Species Composition of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) Inhabiting Cattle Pastures in North Carolina. Ecology and Population Biology, 98 (3), 309-321
  • [12] Beynon, S.A., Mann, D.J., Slade, E.M. & Lewis, O.T. 2012. Species-rich dung beetle communities buffer ecosystem services in perturbed agro-ecosystems. Journals of Applied Ecology, 49: 1365-1372
  • [13] Biswas. S. and Chatterjee, S.K. 1991.Fauna of Orissa. State Fauna Series 1. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 3: 243-262
  • [14] Bornemissza, G.F. 1960. Could dung eating insects improve our pasture? The Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 26: 54-56
  • [15] Braga, R. F., Korasaki, V., Andresen, E. and Louzada, J. 2013. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: A rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity. Plos One, 8(2): e57786
  • [16] .Breymayer, A. and Zachaireva-Stoilova, B. 1975. Scarabaeidae in two mountain pastures in Poland and Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Science (Sci. Biol. II), 33: 173–180
  • [17] Brown, J., Scholtz, C. H., Janeau, J. L., Grellier, S. and Podwojewski, P. 2010. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) can improve soil hydrological properties. Applied Soil Ecology, 46(1): 9–16
  • [18] Campos, R. C., and Hernandez, M. I. M. 2013. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira De Entomologia, 57(1): 47–54
  • [19] Cervenka, V. J. and Moon, R. D. 1991. Arthropods associated with fresh cattle dung pats in Minnesota. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 64(2): 131–145
  • [20] Chandra, K. 2000. Inventory of scarabaeid beetles (Coleoptera) from Madhya Pradesh, India. Zoos’ Print Journal, 15(11): 359-362
  • [21] Chandra, K. 2008. Insecta: Coleoptera. In: K. Chandra (Ed.) Faunal Diversity of Jabalpur District, Madhya Pradesh. Publ. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata: 159-186
  • [22] Chandra, K 2009. Insecta: Coleoptera. In: K. Chandra (Ed.) Fauna of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Conservation Area Series, 39: 259-299, Publ. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.
  • [23] Chandra, K. and Ahirwar, S.C. 2005. Scarabaeid Beetles of Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhya Pradesh. Zoos’ Print Journal, 20(80): 1961-1964
  • [24] Chandra, K. and Ahirwar, S.C. 2007. Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Fauna of Madhya Pradesh (including Chattisgarh). State Fauna Series, 15(Part-1): 273-300
  • [25] Jerzy Borowski, Adam Byk, Tomasz Mokrzycki, Beetles (Coleoptera) of the Rogów region. Part IX – superfamily Scarabaeoidea: Bolboceratidae, Geotrupidae, Lucanidae, Trogidae and Scarabaeidae. World Scientific News 44 (2016) 123-142
  • [26] Subhankar Kumar Sarkar, Sumana Saha, Dinendra Raychaudhuri, On the Mimela Kirby, 1823 (Rutelinae: Scarabaeidae) of Buxa Tiger Reserve (a forest under biodiversity hot spot zone), Dooars, West Bengal, India. World Scientific News 50 (2016) 95-105
  • [27] Subhankar Kumar Sarkar, Sumana Saha, Dinendra Raychaudhuri, Anomala Samouelle, 1819 (Rutelinae: Scarabaeidae) of Buxa Tiger Reserve, Dooars, West Bengal, India. Part – I. World Scientific News 65 (2017) 94-122
  • [28] Subhankar Kumar Sarkar, Sumana Saha, Dinendra Raychaudhuri, Anomala Samouelle, 1819 (Rutelinae: Scarabaeidae) of Buxa Tiger Reserve, Dooars, West Bengal, India. Part – II. World Scientific News 118 (2019) 17-32
  • [29] Chandra, K. & Gupta, D. 2012. Diversity and composition of Dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) assemblages in Singhori Wildlife Sanctuary, Raisen, Madhya Pradesh (India). Munis Entomology and Zoology, 7(2): 812-827
  • [30] Chandra, K. and Gupta, D. 2013. Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary, Chattisgarh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 5(12): 4660-4671
  • [31] Dacke, A., Bell, T.A. Foster, J. J. Baird, E.J., Strube-Bloss, M.F., Byrne, M.J. and Jundi, B.el. 2019. Multimodal cue integration in the dung beetle compass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 116(28): 14248-14253. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1904308116
  • [32] Davis, A. J. 2000. Does reduced-impact logging help preserve biodiversity in tropical rainforests? A case study from Borneo using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as indicators. Environmental Entomology, 29: 467–475
  • [33] Davis, A. J., and Sutton, S.L. 1998. A dung beetle that feeds on fig: Implications for the measurement of species rarity. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13: 759–766
  • [34] Davis, A. J., Holloway, J.D., Huijbregts, H., Krikken, J., Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. and Sutton, S.L. 2001.Dung beetles as indicators of change in the forests of northern Borneo. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38: 593–616
  • [35] Davis, A. L. V., Scholtz, C. H. and Chown, S. L. 1999. Species turnover, community boundaries and biogeographical composition of dung beetle assemblages across an altitudinal gradient in South Africa. Journal of Biogeography, 26: 1039-1055
  • [36] Davis, A. L. V., C. H. Scholtz, and Philips, T. K. 2002. Historical biogeography of scarabaeine dung beetles. Journal of Biogeography, 29: 1217–1256
  • [37] Desiere, M. 1973. Ecologie des Coléoptères coprophages. Annales de la Societe Royale Zoologique de Belgiue, 103: 135–145
  • [38] Dickinson, C.H. and Craig, G. 1990. Effects of water on the composition and release of nutrients from cow pats. New Phytologist, 115: 139-147.
  • [39] Escobar, F. 2000. Diversidad de coleopteroscoprofagos (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) en unmosaico de habitats en la Reserva Natural Nukak, Guiviare, Colombia. Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 79: 103–121
  • [40] Estrada A. and Coates-Estrada R. 2002. Dung beetles in continuous forest, forest fragments and in agricultural mosaic habitat island at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 1903–1918
  • [41] Favila, M., and Halffter, G. 1997. Indicator groups for measuring biodiversity. Acta Zoologica Mexicana, 72: 1–25
  • [42] Fay, H. A. C. and Doube, B.M. 1983. The effect of some coprophagous and predatory beetles on the survival of immature stages of the African buffalo fly, Hematobia thirouxi potans, in bovine dung. Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie, Journal of Applied Entomology, 95(5): 460–466
  • [43] Feer, F. 1999. Effects of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) on seeds dispersed by howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in the French Guianan rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15: 129–142
  • [44] Fincher, G. T. 1975. Dung beetles of Blackbeard Island (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin, 29(4): 319–320
  • [45] Fincher, G.T. 1981. The potential value of dung beetles in pasture ecosystems. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 16(1): 316−333
  • [46] Fincher, G. T., Monson, W. G. and Burton, G. W. 1981. Effects of cattle feces rapidly buried by dung beetles on yield and quality of coastal Bermuda grass. Agronomy Journal, 73(5): 775–779
  • [47] Fincher, G. T., and Woodruff, R. E. 1979. Dung beetles of Cumberland Island, Georgia (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin, 33(1): 69–70
  • [48] Fincher, G. T., Blume, R. R., Hunter, J. S. and Beerwinkle, K. R. 1986. Seasonal distribution and diel flight activity of dung-feeding scarabs (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) in open and wooded pasture in east-central Texas. Southwestern Entomologist Supplement, 10: 1–35
  • [49] Fiene, J. G., Connior, M. B., Androw, R., Baldwin, B. and McKay, T. 2011. Surveys of Arkansas dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae): Phenologies, mass occurrences, state and distributional records. The American Midland Naturalist, 165(2): 319–337.
  • [50] Floate, K. D., and Gill, B. D. 1998. Seasonal activity of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) associated with cattle dung in southern Alberta and their geographic distribution in Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 130(2): 131–151
  • [51] Floate, K. D. and Kadiri, N. 2013. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) associated with cattle dung on native grasslands of southern Alberta, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 145(06): 647–654
  • [52] Frank, K., Bruckner, A., Hilpert, A., Heethoff, M. and Bluthgen, N. 2017. Nutrient quality of vertebrate dung as a diet for dung beetles. Scientific Reports, 7(12141): 1-12
  • [53] Galante, E. and Cartagena, M.C. 1999. Comparison of Mediterranean Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in Cattle and Rabbit Dung. Environmental Entomology, Volume 28, Issue 3: 420–424. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/28.3.420
  • [54] Gollan, J. R., Reid, C. A. M., Barnes, P. B. and Wilkie, L. 2011. The ratio of exotic-to-native dung beetles can indicate habitat quality in riparian restoration. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 4(2): 123–131
  • [55] Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T. E., Bierregaard, J. R R.O., Malcolm, J. R., Stouffer, P.C., Vasconcelos, H. L., Laurence, W. F., Zimmerman, B., Tocher, M. and Borges, S. 1999. Matrix habitat and species richness in tropical forest remnants. Biological Conservation, 91: 223-229
  • [56] Gaikwad, A. R. and Bhawane, G. P. 2016. Observation on life cycle and nesting behaviour of dung beetle Onthophagus catta (Fabricius). International Journal of Zoology Studies, 1(7): 09-13.
  • [57] Ge´nier, F., and Kohlmann. B. 2003. Revision of the Neotropical dung beetle genera Scatimus Erichson and Scatrichus gen. nov. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae). Fabreries, 28: 57–111
  • [58] Halffter, G. and Arellano, L. 2002. Response of dung beetle diversity to human-induced changes in a tropical landscape. Biotropica, 34: 144-154
  • [59] Halffter, G. and Edmonds, W. D. 1982. The nesting behavior of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae): An ecological and evolutive approach. México D.F., Man and the Biosphere Program UNESCO, 177 pp.
  • [60] Halffter, G. and Matthews, E.G. 1966. The natural history of dung beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Folia Entomologica Mexicana, 12/14: 1-312.
  • [61] Halffter, G., Favila, M. E. and Halffter, V. 1992. A comparative study of the structure of the scarab guild in Mexican tropical rain forest and derived ecosystems. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, 84: 131–156
  • [62] Halffter, G., Favila, M.E. and Arellano, L. 1995. Spatial distribution of three groups of coleoptera along an altitudinal transect in the Mexican transition zone and its biogeographical implications. Elytron, 9: 151–185
  • [63] Halffter, G. and Favila, M. E. 1993. The Scarabaeidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) an animal group for analyzing, inventorying and monitoring biodiversity in tropical rainforest and modified landscapes. Biology International, 27: 15-21
  • [64] Hammer, O. 1941. Biological and ecological investigations on flies associated with pasturing cattle and their excrement. Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren, 105: 143–393
  • [65] Hanski, I. 1982. Dynamics of regional distribution: the core and satellite species hypothesis. Oikos, 38: 210–221
  • [66] Hanski, I. 1989. Dung beetles. In Tropical rain forest ecosystems (eds. H. Leith and J. A. Werner), Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam, Holland: 489–511
  • [67] Hanski, I. and Cambefort, Y. 1991a. Spatial processes. In: I Hanski & Y. Cambefort (Eds.). Dung beetle ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton: 283-304
  • [68] Hanski, I and Cambefort, Y. 1991b. Competition in dung beetles. In: Hanski, I. & Y. Cambefort, Y. (Eds.). Dung beetle ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton: 305-329
  • [69] Hanski, I. and Koskela, H. 1979: Resource partitioning in six guilds of dung-inhabiting beetles (Coleoptera). Annals Entomologica Fennica, 45: 1–12
  • [70] Hanski, I. and Krikken, J. 1991. Dung beetles in tropical forests in south-east Asia. In: I. Hanski, & Y. Cambefort, Y. (Eds.). Dung beetle ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 179-197
  • [71] Hanski, I. and Niemela, J. 1990. Elevational distributions of dung and carrion beetles in northern Sulawesi, 145–152. In: Rain Forest Insects of Wallacea. W. J. Knight and J. D. Holloway (Eds.). Royal Entomological Society, London.
  • [72] Harpootlian, P. J. 2001. Scarab Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of South Carolina. Clemson University Public Service Publication, Clemson, SC.
  • [73] Helgesen, R. G. and Post. R. L. 1967. Saprophagous Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera) of North Dakota. Available online at www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/ entomology/Publications/007a.pdf (Accessed on 15.5.2019)
  • [74] Hill, C. J. 1996. Habitat specificity and food preferences of an assemblage of tropical Australian dung beetles. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12: 449–460
  • [75] Holter, P. 2004: Dung feeding in hydrophilid, geotrupid and scarabaeid beetles: Examples of parallel evolution. European Journal of Entomology, 101: 365–372
  • [76] Horgan, F. G. 2005. Effects of deforestation on diversity, biomass and function of dung beetles on the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes. Forest Ecology and Management, 216: 117–133
  • [77] Howden, H. F. and Nealis, V. G. 1975. Effects of clearing in a tropical rain forest on the composition of the coprophagous scarab beetle fauna (Coleoptera). Biotropica, 7: 77–83
  • [78] Howden, H. and Howden, A. 2001. Change Through Time: a Third Survey of the Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at Welder Wildlife Refuge. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 55 (3): 356-362
  • [79] Howden, H. F. and Scholtz, C. H. 1986. Changes in a Texas dung beetle community between 1975 and 1985 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae). The Coleopterists Bulletin, 40(4): 313–316
  • [80] Ishikawa, H. 2011. Effects of dung beetles on seedling emergence from herbaceous seeds in the dung of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a temperate Japanese grassland ecosystem. Ecological Research, 26(4): 725-734
  • [81] Jadhav, M.J. and Sharma, R.M. 2012. Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scaeabaeid beetles. Fauna of Maharashtra, State Fauna Series 20 (Part-2), Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata: 489-494.
  • [82] Jankielsohn, A., Scholtz, C. H. and Louw, S. V. D. M. 2001. Effect of habitat transformation on dung beetle assemblages: A comparison between a South African nature reserve and neighbouring farms. Environmental Entomology, 30: 474–483
  • [83] Kadiri, N., Lumaret, J. P. and Floate, K. D. 2014. Functional diversity and seasonal activity of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) on native grasslands in southern Alberta, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 146 (3), 291–305
  • [84] Kalawate, A.S. 2018. A preliminary study on the dung beetles of the northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10(2): 11316-11331
  • [85] Kaufman, P. E. and Wood, L. A. 2012. Indigenous and exotic dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) collected in Florida cattle pastures. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 105(2): 225–231
  • [86] Kessler, H., Balsbaugh, E. U. J. and McDaniel, B.1974. Faunistic comparison of adult coleoptera recovered from cattle and sheep manure in east central South Dakota. Entomological News, 85: 67–71
  • [87] Kirk, A. A. 1992. The effect of the dung pad fauna on the emergence of Musca tempestiva (Dipt, Muscidae) from dung pads in southern France. Entomophaga, 37(4): 507–514
  • [88] Klein, B. C.1987. Effects of forest fragmentation on dung and carrion beetle communities in central Amazonia. Ecology, 70: 1715-1725
  • [89] Klein, B.1989. Effects of forest fragmentation on dung and carrion beetle communities in central Amazonia. Ecology, 70: 1715–1725
  • [90] Koskela, H. 1972: Habitat selection of dung-inhabiting Staphylinids (Coleoptera) in relation to age of the dung. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 9: 156–171
  • [91] Koskela, H. and Hanski, I. 1977. Structure and succession in a beetle community inhabiting cow dung. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 14: 204-223
  • [92] Korasaki, V., Lopes, J., Brown, G. and Louzada, J. 2013. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity. Insect Science, 20(3): 393–406
  • [93] Krantz, G.W. 1983. Mites as biological control agents for dung-breeding flies, with special reference to the Macrochelidae. In: Biological Control of Pests by Mites (Eds. M.A. Hoy, G.L. Cunningham & L. Knutson), University of California, Berkeley, pp. 91-98.
  • [94] Krüger, K. and Scholtz, C. H. 1997. Possible risk posed by drift of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to the rare dung beetle Circellium bacchus (F.) in a national park. Journal of insect Conservation, 1: 215–220
  • [95] Kudavidanage, E.P. and Lekamge, D. 2012. A provisional checklist of dung beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) in Sri Lanka, pp.438-444. In The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora (Eds. D.K. Weerakoon and S. Wijesundara). Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • [96] Landin, B.O. 1961. Ecological studies on dung-beetles (Col.Scarabaeidae). Opuscula Entomologica Supplement, 19: 1–227
  • [97] Levesque, C. and Levesque, G. Y. 1995. Abundance and flight activity of some Histeridae, Hydrophilidae and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera) in southern Quebec, Canada. Great Lakes Entomologist, 28(1): 71–80
  • [98] Liu, R. T., Zhao, H. L. and Zhao, X. Y. 2012. Influence of grazing exclusion on soil macroinvertebrate diversity in degraded sandy grassland (Inner Mongolia, China). Polish Journal of Ecology, 60(2): 375–385
  • [99] Lobo, J. M., Martín-Piera, F. and Veiga, C. M. 1988. Las trampas pitfall con sebo, sus posibilidades en el estudio de lascomunidadescoprófagas de Scarabaeoidea (Col.). I. Características determinantes de sucapacidad de captura. Revue d`ècologie et de biologie du sol, 25: 77-100
  • [100] Lobo, J. M., Lumaret, J. P. and Jay-Robert, P. 1998. Sampling dung beetles in the French Mediterranean area: effects of abiotic factors and farm practices. Pedobiologia, 42: 252–266
  • [101] Lobo, J. M., Lumaret, J. P. and Jay-Robert, P. 2001. Diversity, distinctiveness and conservation status of the Mediterranean coastal dung beetle assemblage in the Regional Natural Park of the Camargue (France). Diversity and Distributions, 7: 257–270
  • [102] Matheson, M. M. 1987. Insects associated with cattle dung in southern Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
  • [103] Masan, P. and Halliday, B. 2009. Mesostigmatid mites associated with the dung beetle Copris lunaris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). European Journal of Entomology, 106: 545–550
  • [104] McGeoch, M.A., Rensburg, B.J.V, and Botes, A. 2002.The verification and application of bioindicators: a case study of dung beetles in a savanna ecosystem. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39: 661-672
  • [105] Medina, C. A., Escobar, F. and Kattan, G.H. 2002. Diversity and habitat use of dung beetles in a restored Andean landscape. Biotropica, 34(1): 181-187
  • [106] Menendez, R., and D. Gutierrez. 2004. Shifts in habitat associations of dung beetles in northern Spain: Climate change implications. Ecoscience, 11(3): 329–337
  • [107] Miranda, C. H. B., Dos Santos, J. C. C. and Bianchin, I. 1998. Contribution of Onthophagus gazella to soil fertility improvement by bovine fecal mass incorporation into the soil. Greenhouse studies. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia - Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 27 (4): 681–685
  • [108] Moczek, A.P. and Niijhout, H.F. 2003. Rapid evolution of a polyphenic threshold. Evolution & Development, 5: 259-268
  • [109] Montes de Oca E. 2001. Escarabajos coprófagos de un escenario ganadero típico de la región de los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México: importancia del paisaje en la composición de un gremio functional. Acta Zool. Mex. (n.s.) 82: 111-132 (2001)
  • [110] Newton, P.N. and Malcolm, J.C. 1985. Dung and dung beetles in Kanha Tiger Reserve, Central Indian Highlands. Journal Bombay Natural History Society, 85: 218-220
  • [111] Nichols, E., Spector, S., Louzada, J., Larsen, T., Amezquita S. and Favila, M. E. 2008. Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles. Biological Conservation, 141: 1461-1474
  • [112] Nealis, V. G. 1977. Habitat associations and community analysis of south Texas dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 5: 138-147
  • [113] Nummelin, M. and Hanski, I. 1989. Dung beetles of the Kibale Forest, Uganda: a comparison between virgin and managed forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 5: 349–352
  • [114] Numa, C., Verdu, J. R., Rueda, and Galante, E. 2012. Comparing dung beetle species assemblages between protected areas and adjacent pasturelands in a Mediterranean savanna landscape. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65(2): 137–143
  • [115] O’Hea, N. M., Kirwan, L. and Finn, J. A. 2010. Experimental mixtures of dung fauna affect dung decomposition through complex effects of species interactions. Oikos, 119(7): 1081–1088
  • [116] Olechowicz, E. 1974. Analysis of a sheep pasture ecosystem in the Pienieny mountains (the Carpathians). Ekologia Polska, 22: 589–616
  • [117] Olechowicz E. 1976. The role of coprophagous dipterans in a mountain pasture ecosystem. Ekologia Polska, 24: 125–165
  • [118] Pakaluk, J., Slipinski, S. A. and Crowson, R. A.1995. Biology, Phylogeny, and Classification of Coleoptera: Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa, Poland.
  • [119] Pimsler, M. L. 2007. A survey of the dung beetles in cattle manure on pastures of an organic and a conventional dairy farm in New York State. Honors Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
  • [120] Price, D. L. 2004. Notes on the Scarabaeoid dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Geotrupidae, and Trogidae) of Hutcheson Memorial Forest. New Jersey Entomological News, 117: 347–350
  • [121] Price, D. L., Brenneman, L. M. and Johnston, R. E. 2012. Dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) communities of eastern Maryland. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 114(1): 142–151.
  • [122] Priyadarsanan, D.R. 2006. Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeidae (Dung beetles), pp 91-135. Thirumalai, G. & E. Krishnan (Eds.). Fauna of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Conservation Area Series 27, Zoological Survey of India, 263 pp.
  • [123] Psarev, A. M. 2002. Succession in an insect community inhabiting horse dung. Russian Entomological Journal, 11: 287–290
  • [124] Putman, R. J.1983. Carrion and Dung: The decomposition of animal waste, Studies in Biology, 156, Institute of Biology, London, UK: 62.
  • [125] Qie, L., Lee, T. M., Sodhi, N. S. and Lim. S. L. H. 2011. Dung beetle assemblages on tropical landbridge islands: small island effect and vulnerable species. Journal of Biogeography, 38(4): 792–804
  • [126] Quintero, I. and Roslin, T. 2005. Rapid recovery of dung beetle communities following habitat fragmentation in central Amazonia. Ecology, 12: 3303–3311
  • [127] Ratcliffe, B. C., and Jameson, M. L. 2005. Generic guide to New World scarab beetles.Availablefrom:museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Guide-introduction/Guideintro.html (Accessed on 15.12.2020)
  • [128] Ratcliffe, B. C., and Jameson, M.L. 2013. Generic guide to New World scarab beetles. Availablefrom:museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/Guide/Guideintroduction/Guideintro.html (Accessed on 15.12.2020)
  • [129] Radtke, M.G., Carlton, C. E. G., Williamson, B. 2008. A Dung Beetle Assemblage in an Urban Park in Louisiana. Southeastern Naturalist, 7 (1): 101-110
  • [130] Raychaudhuri, D. and Saha, S. (Eds.) 2014. Atlas of Insects and Spiders of BuxaTiger Reserve. Publ. West Bengal Biodiversity Board and Nature Books India, Kolkata: 357 pp.
  • [131] Rodriguez, J. P., Pearson, D. L. and Barrera, R. 1998. A test for the adequacy of bioindicator taxa: are tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) appropriate indicators for monitoring degradation of tropical forests in Venezuela. Biological Conservation, 83: 69–76
  • [132] Roslin, T. and Koivunen, A. 2001. Distribution and abundance of dung beetles in fragmented landscapes. Oecologia, 127: 69–77
  • [133] Rounds, R. J., and Floate, K. D. 2012. Diversity and seasonal phenology of coprophagous beetles at Lake City, Michigan, USA, with a new state record for Onthophagus taurus (Schreber) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin, 66(2): 169–172
  • [134] Sarkar, S. 2013. Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera) of Buxa Tiger Reserve. Ph.D. Thesis (Sc.), Univ of Calcutta, 263pp.
  • [135] Sarkar, S., Saha, S. and Raychaudhuri, D. 2015. On the taxonomy of scarabaeine fauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of Buxa Tiger Reserve (BTR), West Bengal, India. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 10(1): 18-48
  • [136] Sathiandran, N., Thomas, S.K. and Flemmimg, A.T. 2015. An illustrated checklist of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) from the Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 7(15): 8250-8258
  • [137] ScarabNet, 2009. ScarabNet Global Taxon Database Version 1.5 online at http://www.scarabnet.org (accessed on 15.12.2020)
  • [138] Scholtz, C., J. du G. Harrison, and V. V. Grebennikov. 2004. Dung beetle [Scarabaeus (Pachysoma)] biology and immature stages: reversal to ancestral states under desert conditions (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 83: 453–460
  • [139] Schulze, C.H., Shahabuddin and Tscharntke, T. 2005.Changes of dung beetle communities from rainforests towards agroforestry systems and annual cultures in Sulawesi (Indonesia). Biodiversity Conservation, 14(4): 863–77
  • [140] Shahabuddin. 2011. Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles; experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversities, 12(3): 177-181
  • [141] Simmons L.W. and Ridsdill-Smith, T.J. 2011. Ecology and evolution of dung beetles. Publ. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 347pp.
  • [142] Singh, A.P., Mahajan, S., De, K., Uniyal, V.P. and Bhardwaj, A.K. 2018. An Assessment of Coleopteran Fauna of the forest of Siswan, Punjab. Indian Forester, 144(11): 1107-1113
  • [143] Skidmore, P. 1991. Insects of the British cow dung community: Field Studies Council. Occasional Publications, 21: 1-166
  • [144] Šlachta, M., Frelich, J. and Svoboda, I. 2008. Seasonal biomass distribution of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae, Geotrupidae, Hydrophilidae) in mountain pastures of South-West Bohemia. Journal of Agrobiology, 25: 163–176
  • [145] Slade, E. M., Mann, D. J., Villanueva, J. F. and Lewis, O. T. 2007. Experimental evidence for the effects of dung beetle functional group richness and composition on ecosystem function in a tropical forest. Journal of Animal Ecology 76(6): 1094–1104
  • [146] Smetana, A. 1978. Revision of the subfamily Sphaeridiinae of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 110: 1–292
  • [147] Sowig, P.1995. Habitat selection and offspring survival rate in three paracoprid dung beetles: the influence of soil type and soil moisture. Ecograpahy, 18:147–154.
  • [148] Sowig, P. and Wassmer, T. 1994. Resource partitioning in coprophagous beetles from sheep dung: Phenology and microhabitat preferences. Zoologische Jahrbucher Abtheilung für Systematik, 121: 171-192
  • [149] Spector, S. and Ayzama, S. 2003. Rapid turnover and edge effects in dung beetle assemblages (Scarabaeidae) at a Bolivian Neotropical forest–savanna ecotone. Biotropica, 35: 394–404
  • [150] Spector, S. and Forsyth, A. B. 1998. Indicator taxa for biodiversity assessment in the vanishing tropics.Conservation in a Changing World (Eds G. Mace, A. Balmford & R. Ginsberg), 181–209.
  • [151] Trumbo, S. T. and Fernandez, A. G. 1995. Regulation of Broodsize by male parents and cues employed to access resource size by burying beetles. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, 7: 313-322
  • [152] Valiela, I. 1969. Composition, food webs and population limitation in dung arthropod communities during invasion and succession. American Midland Naturalist, 92(2): 370–385
  • [153] Valiela, I. 1974. Composition, food webs and population limitation in dung arthropod communities during invasion and succession. American Midland Naturalist, 92(2): 370–385
  • [154] Vaz-de-Mello, F. Z. 2003. Species formerly in the genera Trichillum Harold, 1868 and Pedaridium Harold, 1868 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Brazil.
  • [155] Vaz-de-Mello, F. Z. 2007. Revisio´ntaxono´mica y ana´ lisisfilogene´tico de la tribu Ateuchini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). D.Sc. Thesis, Instituto de Ecologı´a, A.C., Xalapa, Mexico
  • [156] Veenakumari, K & Veeresh, G.K. 1997. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) fauna of Bangalore, Karnataka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 94(1): 171-173
  • [157] Wassmer, T. 2014. Seasonal occurrence (Phenology) of coprophilous beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and Hydrophilidae) from cattle and sheep farms in southeastern Michigan, USA. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 68(3): 603–618
  • [158] Waterhouse, D. F. 1974. Biological control of dung. Scientific American, 230(4): 100–109
  • [159] Woodruff, R. E.1973.The Scarab Beetles of Florida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Volume 8. Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL.
  • [160] Wu, X., Duffy, J. E, Reich, P. B. and Sun, S. 2010. A brown-world cascade in the dung decomposer food web of an alpine meadow: effects of predator interactions and warming. Ecological Monographs 81(2): 313–328
  • [161] Wu, X.W., and Sun, S. C. 2012. Artificial warming advances egg-laying and decreases larval size in the dung beetle Aphodius erraticus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in a Tibetan alpine meadow. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 49(3): 174–180
Document Type
article
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-bf1b874d-46ae-4c67-a3c7-8fff04c8ddbd
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.