Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2020 | 145 | 222-233
Article title

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients at General Hospital, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Title variants
Languages of publication
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) was investigated in respondents presenting signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) in a rural community. Using simple random sampling, a total of 360 respondents (144 males and 216 females) were recruited into the study following informed consent and ethical approval. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from all the respondents aseptically using standard protocol. Isolation of K. pneumoniae was done using morphological characteristics and various biochemical tests while antibiotic sensitivity testing using various antibiotics was done using guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. A total of 16 samples gave positive culture representing an overall prevalence of 4.4%. Furthermore, prevalence rates of 2.8%, 5.6%, 47.82%, 4.9%, 3.50%, and 8.60% for males, females, diabetics, in-patients, out-patients, and respondents above 60 years of age respectively were obtained. Resistance to antibiotics ranged from 37.50 to 56.25% for gentamycin and nalidixic, and tarivid, respectively. There is need for preventive measures aimed at sensitization of dwellers in community settings.
Physical description
  • Obong University, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Obong University, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Arthur Jarvis University, Faculty of Biological Science, Akpabuyo, Microbiology Department, Cross River State, Nigeria
  • University of Calabar, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of Microbiology, PMB 1115 Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
  • Obong University, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Obong University, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • [1] Prescott, L. M., Harley, J. P. and Klein, D. N. (1999). Microbiology 4th Edition. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • [2] CDC (2020). Klebsiella pneumoniae in Healthcare Settings.
  • [3] Vading, M., NaucleÂr, P., Kalin, M. and Giske, C. G. (2018). Invasive infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a disease affecting patients with high comorbidity and associated with high long- term mortality. PLoS ONE 13(4), e0195258
  • [4] Pollack, M., Niemann, R E., Reinhardt, J. A., Charache, P., Jett, M. P. and Hardy, P. H. Jr. (1972). Factors influencing colonisation and antibiotic-resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria in hospital patients. Lancet. 2(7779), 668–671
  • [5] Casewell, M. and Talsania, H. G. (1979). Predominance of certain Klebsiella capsular types in hospitals in the United Kingdom. Journal of Infections 1, 77–79
  • [6] Horan, T., Culver, D., Jarvis, W., Emori, G., Banerjee, S., Martone, W. and Thornsberry, C. (2001). Pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Antimicrobic Newsletter 5, 65-67
  • [7] Schaberg, D. R., Culver, D. H. and Gaynes, R. P. (2004). Major trends in the microbial etiology of nosocomial infection. American Journalof Medicine. 91, 72S-75S
  • [8] Kodner, C. M. and Gupton, E. K. T. (2010).Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 82(6), 638-643
  • [9] Bradford, P. A., Urban, C., Mariano, N., Projan, S. J., Rahal, J. J. and Bush, K. (1997). Imipenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with the combination of ACT-1, a plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase, and the loss of an outer membrane protein. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 41, 563-569
  • [10] Felson, B., Rosenberg, L. S. and Hamburger, M. J. (2005) Roentgen findings in acute Friedländer’s pneumonia. Journal of Radiology 53, 559–565
  • [11] Casewell M W. and Phillips I. (1977). Hands as a route of transmission for Klebsiella species. British Medical Journal 2, 1315-1317
  • [12] Casewell, M. W. and Phillips, I. (1978). Epidemiological patterns of Klebsiella colonization and infection in an intensive care ward. Journal of Hygiene Cambridge 80, 295-300
  • [13] Selden, R., Lee, S., Wang, W. L., Bennett, J. V. and Eickhoff, T. C. (1971). Nosocomial Klebsiella infections: intestinal colonization as a reservoir. Annual Internal Medicince. 74, 657-664
  • [14] Woodford, N., Turton, J. F. and Livermore, D. M. (2011). Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria: the role of high-risk clones in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiol Review 35(5), 736-755
  • [15] Navon-Venezia, S., Kondratyeva, K. and Carattoli, A. (2017). Klebsiella pneumoniae: a major worldwide source and shuttle for antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 41, 252–275
  • [16] Mulani, M. S., Kamble, E. E., Kumkar, S. N., Tawre, M. S. and Pardesi, K. R (2019). Emerging Strategies to Combat ESKAPE Pathogens in the Era of Antimicrobial Resistance: A Review. Front. Microbiol. 10, 539
  • [17] Xu, M., Fu, Y., Kong, H., Chen, X., Chen, Y., Li, L. and Yang, Q. (2018). Bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae: prevalence of blaKPC, virulence factors and their impacts on clinical outcome. BMC Infectious Diseases. 18, 358
  • [18] Ebana, R. U. B., Etok, C. A. and Edet U. O. (2016). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial effect of three medicinal plants on urinary tract pathogens (2016). Asian Journal of medicine and Health 1(2), 1-7
  • [19] Ebana, R. U. B., Edet, U. O., Anosike, I. K. and Etok, C. A. (2019). Bdellovibrio and like organisms: The much anticipated magic bullet. World News of Natural Sciences 23, 233-249
  • [20] Effah, C. Y., Sun, T., Liu,S. and Wu, Y. (2020). Klebsiella pneumoniae: an increasing threat to public health. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 19, 1.
  • [21] Ebana, R. U. B., Andy, I. E., Edet, U. O., Benjamin, A. U., Mbim, E. N. and Anosike, I. K. (2019). Nutritional Studies and Antimicrobial Activities of Jatropha tanjorensis Leaves Extracts against Escherichia coli isolates. International Journal Innovation Science and Research Technology, 4(8), 945-955
  • [22] Heidry, M., Goudarzi, H., Hashemi, A., Eslami, G., Goudarzi, M., Chirani, A. S. and Amraei, S. (2017). Prevalence of Quinolone Resistance Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Patients During 2013 – 2014. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 5(4), e38343
  • [23] Paczosa, M. K. and Mecsas, J. (2016). Klebsiella pneumoniae: going on the offense with a strong defense. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 80, 629-661
  • [24] Okonkwo, E. E. and Oguamanam, C. C. (2013). Traditional Crafts and Tourism Development and Promotion in Etim Ekpo Local Government of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(6), 139-147
  • [25] Setia, M. S. (2016). Methodology Series Mdoule 3: Cross Sectional Studies. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 61(3), 261-264
  • [26] Masood, M. B. E., Saba, N. U. and Samad, A. (2002). Klebsiella pueumoniae Urinary Tract infections associated with long-term catherterization and spinal cord injuries. Journal of Medical Science, 2(5-6), 227-229.
  • [27] Barrow, G. I. and Feltham, R. K. A. (2003). Cowan and Steel᾽s Manual for the identification of the Medical Bacteria, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K.
  • [28] Cheesborough, M. (2009). Medical laboratory manual for tropical countries, microbiology (ELBS), New York, 2009; 2nd edition: 62-70.
  • [29] Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2012). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-second Informational Supplement. Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA Magiorakos. 32, 70–71
  • [30] Srinivasan, A. P., Carey, A., Carmeli, R. B., Falagas, Y., M. E, et al. (2012). Multidrug resistance, extensively drug resistance and pandrug-resistance bacteria: An international expert proposal for interim standard definations for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 18, 268-281
  • [31] Sham, D. F., Thomsberry, C., Mayfield, D. C., Jones, M. E. and Karlowsky, J. A.(2001) Multidrug resistant urinary tract isolates of Escherichia coli: Prevalence and patient demographics in united states in 2000. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45(5), 1402-1406
  • [32] Santana, R. D. C., Gaspar, G. G., Vilar, F. C., Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F. and Martinez, R. (2016). Secular trends in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a tertiary-care hospital: increasing prevalence and accelerated decline in antimicrobial susceptibility. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 49(2), 177-182
  • [33] Parisi, S. G., Bartolini, A., Santacatterina, E., Castellani, E., Ghirardo, R., Berto, A., Franchin, E., Menegotto, Canale, E. D, TOmmasini, T., Rinaldi, R., Baso, M. and Palu, G. (2015). Prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing carbapenemases and increase ofresistance to colistin in an Italian teaching hospital from January 2012 To December 2014. BMC Infectious Diseases. 15, 244.
  • [34] Cristea, O. M., Avramescu, C. S., Balasoiu, M., Popescu, F, D., Popescu, F. and Amzoiu, M. O. (2017). Urinary tract infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Current Health Sciences Journal, 43(2), 137-148
  • [35] Coovadia, Y. M., Johnson, A. P., Bhana, R. H., Hutchinson, G. R., George, R. C. and Hafferjee, I. E. (1992). Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal nursery: the importance of maintenance of infection control policies and procedures in the prevention of outbreaks. Journal of Hospital Infections 22, 197-205
  • [36] Rath, S. and Padhy, R. N. (2014). Prevalence of two multidrug-resistant Klebsiella species in an Indian teachinghospital and adjoining community. Journal of Infection and Public Health 7, 496-507
  • [37] Hou, X. U., Song, X. Y., Ma, X. B., Zhang, S. Y. and Zhang, .Q. (2015). Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 46, 3, 759-768
  • [38] Tian, L., Tan, R., Chen, Y., Sun, J., Liu, Qu, H. and Wang, X. (2016). Epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in a teaching hospital: factors related to the carbapenem resistance and patient mortality. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 5, 48
  • [39] Ofek, I., Goldhar, J., Zafriri, D., Lis, H., Adar, R. and Sharon, N. (1991) Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. New England Journal of Medicine 324, 1599
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.