Forth Industrial Revolution (4 IR): Digital Disruption of Cyber – Physical Systems
Languages of publication
Article focus of the disruptive character of technological innovations brought by Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), with its unprecedented scale and scope, and exponential speed of incoming innovations, described from the point view of ‘unintended consequences’ (cross cutting impact of disruptive technologies across many sectors and aspects of human life). With integration of technology innovations emerging in number of fields including advanced robotics, pervasive computing, artificial intelligence, nano- and bio- technologies, additive and smart manufacturing, Forth Industrial Revolution introduce new ways in which technology becomes embedded not only within the society, economy and culture, but also within human body and mind (described by integration of technologies, collectively referred to as cyber-physical systems). At the forefront of digital transformation, based on cyber physical systems, stands Industry 4.0, referring to recent technological advances, where internet and supporting technologies (embedded systems) are serving as framework to integrate physical objects, human actors, intelligent machines, production lines and processes across organizational boundaries to form new kind of intelligent, networked value chain, called smart factory. Article presents broader context of ‘disruptive changes (innovations)’ accompanying 4IR, that embrace both economical perspective of ‘broader restructuring’ of modern economy and society (described in second part of the article as transition from second to third and forth industrial revolution), and technological perspective of computer and informational science with advances in pervasive computing, algorithms and artificial intelligence (described in third part of article with different stages of web development : web 1.0, web 2.0, web 3.0, web 4.0). What’s more important, article presents hardly ever described in literature, psychological and philosophical perspective, more or less subtle reconfiguration made under the influence of these technologies, determining physical (body), psychological (mind) and philosophical aspect of human existence (the very idea of what it means to be the human), fully depicted in the conclusion of the article. The core element (novelty) is the attempt to bring full understanding and acknowledgment of disruptive innovations’, that “change not only of the what and the how things are done, but also the who we are”, moving beyond economical or technological perspective, to embrace also psychological and philosophical one.
Forth Industrial Revolution (4IR) H2M (human to machine) communication Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) Industry 4.0 Internet of Things (IOT) M2H (machine to human) M2M (machine to machine) SMAC (social Smart Manufacturing analytics and cloud) artificial intelligence (AI) cyber-physical systems digital disruption (disruptive innovations) infosphere mobile pervasive computing philosophy of information semantic web symbiotic and ubiquitous web
-  Aarts E., Harwig R. and Schuurman M. (2001), Ambient Intelligence, in: Denning P. (Ed): The Invisible Future. New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 235-50.
-  Aarts E., Encarnação J. (2006) Into Ambient Intelligence, in: Aarts E., Encarnação J.(Eds) True Visions: The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence. Springer-Verlag. pp. 1-16.
-  Aarts E. de Ruyter B. (2009). New research perspectives on Ambient Intelligence. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments 1(1). pp. 5-14.
-  Aghaei S., Nematbakhsh M.A., Farsani H.K. (2012), Evolution of the World Wide Web: from web 1.0 to web 4.0. International Journal of Web & Semantic Technology Vol. 3, No. 1
-  Allenby B., Sarewitz D. (2011), The techno-human condition, MIT Press, Cambrigde, London
-  Almeida F. (2017) Concept and Dimensions of Web 4.0, International Journal of Computers and Technology, Volume 16 (7)
-  Arthur B. (2011). The Second Economy, McKinsee Quarterly 4, pp. 91–99.
-  Barabasi A.L. (2002) Linked. The New Science of Networks, Perseus Press, Cambrigde.
-  Bard A., Soderqvist J. (2002) Netocracy - The New Power Elite and life after Capitalism, Reuters/Pearsall UK
-  Baudrillard J. (1995), Simulacra and Simulation, Michigan Publishing, Universtity of Michigan Press
-  Bauman Z. (2000) Liquid Modernity, Polity Press, Cambridge
-  Bell D. (1973) The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, Basic Books, New York
-  Benedicter R. (2015) Essays in the philosophy of humanism, Journal of the American Humanist Association and the Institute for Humanist Studies, vol. 23.2-2015, pp. 133-159 Equinox, Bristol
-  Benito-Osorio D., Peris-Ortiz, M., Armengot C. R., Colino A. (2013), Web 5.0 the future of emotional competences in higher education, Global Business Perspectives, p. 274-287
-  Berners Lee T, Fischetti M. (1999) Weabing the Web, Harper, San Francisco
-  Boutang Y. M. (2012), Cognitive Capitalism, Polity Press, Cambridge
-  Brynjolfsson E., McAffee A. (2011) Race Against the Machine, How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy, Digital Frontier Press, Lexington
-  Brynjolfsson E., McAffee A. (2014) Second Machine Age. Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies, Norton and Company, New York London
-  Castells M. (2000, 2010) The information Age: Economy, society and culture, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford
-  Carayannis E.G., Spillan J.E., Ziemnowicz Ch. (2007). Introduction: why Jospeh Schumpeter’s creative destruction? Because everything has changed in: Rediscovering Schumpeter, Creative Destruction Evolving into “mode3”, Palgrave McMillan, Houndmills-Basingstoke
-  Christensen M. C., Raynor M.E, McDonald R. (2015), What is disruptive innovation. Harward Business Review, p. 44-53
-  Bower, J. L., and C. M. Christensen. Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave. Harvard Business Review 73, no. 1 (January–February 1995): 43–53.
-  Cisco (2014) Cisco Visual Networking Index : Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2013 2018 p. 40, 2014
-  Cornelius D. A. (2013), SMAC and transforming innovation presented at PMI® Global Congress 2013, PA: Project Management Institute
-  Cote M., Pybus J. (2007), Learning to immaterial labour 2.0: MySpace and social networks, Ephemera, 7(1), pp. 88-106.
-  Cook N. ( 2008), Enterprise 2.0: How Social Software Will Change the Future of Work, Gower Publishing, Hampshire
-  Dator J. (2002) Advancing Futures, Praeger, Westport, Connecticut
-  Dawson M., Foster J.B. (1998) Virtual Capitalism in: MCChesney R.W.,Wood E.M., Foster J.B. (Ed.) Capitalism and the Information Age. Political Economy of Global Communication, Monthly Review Press, NY
-  De S., Elsaleh T., Barnaghi P., Meissner S. (2010) An Internet of Things platform for real-world and digital objects, Scapable Computing. Practise and Experience Volume 13, no. 1, pp. 45–57
-   Erboz G. (2017) How To Define Industry 4.0: Main Pillars Of Industry 4.0, , Conference Paper Conference: 7th International Conference on Management (ICoM 2017), At Nitra, Slovakia
-  Floridi L. (2011) The Philosophy of Information, Oxford University Press, Oxford
-  Floridi L. (2014) The Forth Industrial revolution. How the infosphere is reshaping human reality, Oxford University Press, Oxford
-  Floridi L. (2011) Why information matters, Journal of technology and Society, The New Atalntis News, p. 7-16
-  Fuchs C. (2009a), Information and communication technologies and society: A contribution to the critique of the political economy of the internet, European Journal of Communication, 24(69), pp. 69-87.
-  Fuchs C. (2009b), Class, knowledge and new media, Media, Culture & Society, 32(1), pp. 141-150.
-  Fuchs C. (2010), Labour in informational capitalism and on the internet, The Information Society, 26, pp. 179-196
-  Fuchs C. Sevignani S. (2013), What is Digital Labour? What is Digital Work? What’s their Difference? And why do these Questions Matter for Understanding Social Media?, tripleC - Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society 11 (2), pp. 237-293
-  Fukuyama F. (1992) The end of history and the last man, Free Press , New York
-  Hardt M., Negri A. (2000), Empire, Cambridge MA, Harvard UP London
-  Hardt M., Negri A. (2004), Multitude : war and democracy in the age of Empire, The Penguin Press, NY
-  Hekkert M.P., Suurs R.A., Negro S.O., Kuhlmann S., Smits R.E.H.M. (2007), Functions of innovation systems: A new approach for analysing technological change, Technological Forecasting & Social Change 74, pp. 413-432
-  Hendler J. Berners-Lee T. (2010) From the Semantic Web to social machines:
- A research challenge for AI on the World Wide Web, Artificial Intelligence, no. 174, pp. 156-161, Science Direct
-  Hirschhorn L. (1986) Beyond Mechanization: Work and Technology in a Postindustrial Age, MIT Press, Cambridge
-  Hollan J. Hutchins E., Kirch D. (2000) Distributed cognition : towards a new foundation of human-computer interaction research, ACM Transactions on Human-Computer Interactions, Vol 7 (2) pp. 174-196
-  Sha L., Gopalakrishnan S., Liu X., Wang Q. IEEE International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing Cyber-Physical Systems: A New Frontier (2008),
-  Jessop B (1992). Fordism and Postfordism: a Critical Refomulation, in : Pathways to Regionalism and Industrial Development, Editors: Allen J. Scott, Michael J. Storper, pp.43-65, Routledge
-  Jessop B. (1995). The regulation approach, governance and post-Fordism: alternative perspectives on economic and political change?, Economy and Society, vol. 24 (3), p. 307-333
-  Kambil A. (2008) What is your Web 5.0 Strategy?, Journal of Business Strategy, Volume 29, Issue 6.
-  Kasza J. (2017a) Simulacra and Simulation: The Impact of ICT Upon “Radical Transformation” of Culture, World Scientific News 78, 288- 306
-  Kasza J. (2017b) Post-modern identity :"in between" real and virtual ( identity), World Scientific News 78, 41-57,
-  Kasza J. (2018) Immaterial labour - impact of ICT upon new modalities of labour in digital economy, World Scientific News 104, 234-251
-  Kemp R. (1994) Technology and the transition to environmental sustainability - the problem of technological regime shifts, Futures 26 (10), 1023-1046.
-  Korhonen, J., Karhu, K. (2011) Explaining the Evolutionary Development of the Web. in Gummesson E., Mele C., Polese F. (Eds.), The 2011 Naples Forum on Service - Service Dominant logic, Network & Systems Theory and Service Science: integrating three perspectives for new service agenda, Capri, Italy
-  Lacoff G., Johnson M (1980) , Metaphors We Live By, University of Chicago, Chicago
-  Latour, B. (1996) Actor Network Theory. A Few Clarifications, Soziale Welt vol. 47, nr 4, pp. 369–381
-  Latour B. (2005), Re-assembling the Social. An introduction to Actor-Network Theory, Oxford University Press
-  Lee E. (2008) Cyber Physical Systems: Design Challenges, 11th IEEE Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC), IEEE pp. 363-369
-  Lee J., Bagheri B., Kao H.A. (2015), A Cyber-Physical Systems architecture for Industry 4.0-based manufacturing systems, Manufacturing Letters 3 (2015) 18–23
-  ] Levy F., Murnane R. (2004) The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New York
-  Markoff J. (2006) Entrepreneurs See a Web Guided by Common Sense, New York Times
-  Masini E. (1993) Why Futures Studies?, Grey Seal Books, London
-  McAfee A.P. (2006). Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 47 (3), pp. 21-28.
-  McKinsey Quarterly (2010): ‘The Internet of Things’, no.2 2010, McKinsey, New York
-  Merton R.K. (1936). The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action. American Sociological Review, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 894-904.
-  Merton, R.K (1968) Social Theory and Social Structure, Enlarged edn, Collier-Macmillan, London.
-  Monostori L. (2014). Cyber-physical Production Systems: Roots, Expectations and R&D Challenges, Procedia CIRP, vol. 17, pp. 9–13
-  Naisbitt J. (1982) Megatrends. The New Direction Transforming our Lives, Warner Books, NY
-  O’Reilly T. (2007) What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software, Communications & Strategies, No. 1, p. 17
-  Pasquinelli M. (2009) Google’s PageRank Algorithm: A Diagram of Cognitive Capitalism and the Rentier of the Common Intellect, in: Deep Search: The Politics of Search Beyond Google, Transaction Publishers, London
-  Parvathi M., Mariselvi R. (2017) A bird’s eye on the Evolution Web 1.0 to Web 5.0: Lib 1.0 to Lib 5.0, International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology , Vol. 4, Special Issue 4
-  Patel K. (2013) Incremental Journey for World Wide Web: Introduced with web 1.0 to recent web 5.0 , International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3(10)
-  Peters M. A. (2011) Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labour, Peter Lang, New York
-  Postman N. (1992) Technopoly. The surrender of culture to technology, Pantheon, New York
-  Rheingold H. (2000) The Virtual Community, MIT Press, Cambrigde, Massachussets, London
-  Rifkin J. (1996) The end of work : the decline of the global labour force and the dawn of post-market era, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York
-  Rifkin J. (2001) The Age of the Access, Penguin Books, London
-  Rifkin J. (2011) The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy and the World, Palgrave Macmillan, New York
-  Rheingold H. (2000) The Virtual Community, MIT Press, Cambrigde, Massachussets, London
-  Rogers E. (1976). New Product Adoption and Diffusion, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 290-301.
-  Rogers E. (1983), Diffusion of Innovations, The Free Press, New York.
-  Robertson R. (1992) Globalisation : The Social Theory and Global Culture, Sage, London
-  Rotman D. (2013) How Technology is Destroying Jobs , MIT Technology Review, June 20013
-  Rüßmann et al (2015) Industry 4.0: The future of productivity and growth in manufacturing industries. Boston Consulting Group (BCG), pp.1-14.
-  Savulescu J., Bostrom N. (2009), Human Enhancement, Oxford University Press, Oxford
-  Schumacher A., Erolb S., Sihn W (2016) A maturity model for assessing Industry 4.0 readiness and maturity of manufacturing enterprises , Procedia CIRP 52 (2016) 161-16
-  Schumpeter J. A. (2006) . Business cycles: a theoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of the capitalist process, Mansfield Centre, Martino Pub, Connecticut
-  Schumpeter J.A. (1997) The theory of economic development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle [1911, 1934], New Brunswick & London
-  Schwab K. (2016) The Forth Industrial Revolution, World Economic Forum, Geneva
-  Servon L. (2002) Bridging the Digital Divide: technology, Community and Public Policy, Blackwell, Oxford
-  Shaheed S.M., Abbas J., Shabbir A., Khalid F. (2015) Solving the Challenges of Pervasive Computing, Journal of Computer and Communications, 3, 41-50.
-  Sindhu R.A., Chezian R.M. (2016). The Movement of Web from Web 0.0 to Web 5.0: A Comparative Study, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Volume 3; Issue 3; pp. 176-179; (Special Issue)
-  Sohail I. (2007). Questioning the Future: methods and tools for organizational and societal change, Tamkang University Press, Tamsui
-  Stehr N. (1994) Knowlegde Societies, Sage Publications, London
-  Thrift N. (2005) Knowing Capitalism, Sage Publishing, London New Delhi
-  Tapscott D. (1998) Growing up digital. The Rise of the Net Generation, McGraw- Hill, London
-  Tapscott D., Caston A. (1993), Paradigm Shift: The New Promise of Information Technology , McGraw Hill,
-  Tapscott D., Williams A. (2008) Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changed everything, Portfolio, NY
-  Tegmark M. (2017), Life 3.0: being human in the age of artificial intelligence, Penguin Random House, NY
-  Toffler, A. (1970, 1984) Future Shock, Bantam Books, New York Toronto London Syndey Auckland
-  Toffler, A., Toffler H. (1980). The Third Wave. William Morrow, New York
-  Vercellone C. (2007). From formal subsumption to general intellect, Historical Materialism, 15, pp. 13-36.
-  Wallerstein E. (1999) The end of the world as we know it, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis
-  Weiser, M., Gold R., Brown J.S. (1999) Ubiquitous Computing, IBM System Journals, Vol. 38, no.4
-  Wierzbicki A.P. (2000) Megatrends of Information Society and the Emergence of Knowledge Science, in: Proceedings of the Intern. Conference on Virtual Environments for Advanced Modelling, JAIST, Tatsumokuchi
-  Wierzbicki A.P. (2015). Techne: Element of Recent History of Information Technologies with epistemological conculsions, Springer Int. Publishing, Switzerland
-  White B. (2015) Discovering the Future of the Web, Journal of Computing and Information Technology, 23(1), 87-93.
-  Zelkha E., Epstein B. (1998). From Devices to 'Ambient Intelligence': The Transformation of Consumer Electronics. Presentation at the Digital Living Room Conference, p. 16-19
Publication order reference