Effects of Exercise on Appetite-Regulating Hormones, Perceived Hunger, and Energy Intake: A Narrative Overview
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Controlling appetite, perceived hunger, and energy intake are important factors in weight management. This narrative review examines the effect of different forms, intensities and duration of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones leptin, acylated ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine3-36 (PYY3-36), perceptions of hunger, and energy intake in overweight/obese, and normal weight populations. The studies reviewed compared exercise intensities- low, moderate, and high intensity, and modes of exercise- aerobic and resistance training. The studies selected in this narrative review included participants that ranged in age from 13-57 years old, male and female, previously sedentary and physically active, and normal weight and overweight/obese individuals- defined by body mass index standards (BMI). The primary benefits of exercise on appetite regulation are seen with moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise; with the most notable relative energy deficit resulting from an exercise bout (at any intensity) that expends the most energy. Further research is warranted to determine if there exists a tendency to overcompensate for energy expended during exercise in certain populations.
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