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2011 | 11 | 4 | 216-226
Article title

CADASIL – obraz kliniczny, diagnostyka i leczenie

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EN
CADASIL – clinical picture, diagnostic process and treatment
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PL
Abstracts
EN
Despite of its name, CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is a systemic vascular disease related to mutations in the NOTCH 3 gene located on chromosome 19. The clinical course of CADASIL is highly variable, even within families and carriers of the same mutation. The onset of the disease is usually in 4-5 decade of life. CADASIL manifests clinically as migraine with aura, recurrent ischaemic strokes, mood disorders, and progressing dementia. Early presence of abnormalities in autoregulation of the cerebral blood flow is characteristic for the disorder. On T2-weighted MRI scans diffused hyperintensities in the cerebral white matter are visible. Involvement of the anterior temporal lobe and external capsule on brain MRI is considered as radiological feature for the disease. The pathologic hallmarks of CADASIL are degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in resistant middle- and small-sized arteries, and presence of granular osmiophilic material (GOM) in wall of small vessels. Diagnostic criteria which allow to diagnose the disorder involve positive result of genetic examination and the presence of GOM deposits in vessel wall in skin or muscle biopsy. Since pathomechanism of CADASIL is unknown, treatment of the disease is only symptomatic. This review focuses on an update of CADASIL clinical picture, diagnosis and management based on the recent basic and clinical evidences.
PL
Mózgowa autosomalna dominująca arteriopatia z zawałami podkorowymi i zwyrodnieniem istoty białej (CADASIL) wbrew swojej nazwie jest uogólnioną arteriopatią spowodowaną mutacjami w genie NOTCH 3 zlokalizowanym na chromosomie 19. Przebieg kliniczny CADASIL-u jest zróżnicowany nawet wśród członków tej samej rodziny i nosicieli tej samej mutacji. Pierwsze objawy choroby pojawiają się zwykle w 4.-5. dekadzie życia. Klinicznie CADASIL charakteryzuje się występowaniem migreny z aurą, nawracających udarów niedokrwiennych, zaburzeń nastroju oraz narastającego otępienia. Cechą znamienną choroby jest wczesna obecność zaburzeń autoregulacji przepływu mózgowego. W badaniu mózgu za pomocą rezonansu magnetycznego widoczne są rozległe hiperintensywne w projekcji T2-zależnej zmiany w istocie białej mózgu. Obecność tych zmian w przedniej części płatów skroniowych i torebce zewnętrznej uważa się za charakterystyczną radiologiczną cechę choroby. W badaniu histopatologicznym stwierdza się zwyrodnienie i ubytek miocytów gładkich w tętnicach oporowych średniego i małego kalibru oraz gromadzenie się w ścianie małych naczyń złogów gęstego osmofilnego materiału (GOM). Kryteriami umożliwiającymi rozpoznanie choroby są pozytywny wynik badania genetycznego oraz obecność złogów GOM w naczyniach w biopsji skóry lub mięśnia szkieletowego. Ze względu na nieznany patomechanizm choroby w chwili obecnej leczenie jest tylko objawowe. W poniższym artykule przeglądowym przedstawiamy aktualny stan wiedzy dotyczący obrazu klinicznego, procesu diagnostycznego i leczenia CADASIL-u w oparciu o wyniki najnowszych badań naukowych i klinicznych.
Discipline
Year
Volume
11
Issue
4
Pages
216-226
Physical description
References
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article
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