Microbial profile and nutritional quality during the fermentation of cereal based weaning food fortified with soya bean and tiger nut using starter culture
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To develop a protein rich sorghum weaning food in a country with high poverty rate, the effects of adding soybeans and tiger-nut, two different ratios was formulated, R1 and R2. R1 was formulated in the ratio 5:3:2 (comprising of 50% sorghum, 30% soybean and 20% tiger nut flours) while R2 was formulated in the ratios 4:4:2 (40% sorghum, 40% soybeans and 20% tiger nut flours), respectively. Two fermentation processes was done for the ratios, starter (single) base fermentation ratios (SBFR) and spontaneous fermentation ratios (SPFR). Microbial analysis (total bacteria, yeast count, lactic acid bacteria count and enteric bacteria counts) were done after every 6 hrs of fermentation. The highest total bacterial count obtained was (4.4×105) in SPFR2 while the lowest count was 2.4×102 in SBFR1. Lactic acid bacteria range from 6.2×105 to 1.0×103. The highest enteric bacteria count was observed in SPFR1 (9.0×104) while highest yeast count (1.3×105) was observed in SPFR2. No growths were recorded for yeast and enteric bacteria after 12 to 24 hrs of fermentation for the starter based products. The results showed that the overall nutritional quality of sample SBFR1 was superior than sample SBFR2. Sample SBFR1 and had the higher total energy, protein content and reasonable amount of carbohydrates. The fermentation improves the nutritional qualities of locally produced sorghum weaning foods. Fortification of these foods with soybeans and tiger nut can be an added advantage as this may likely be a remedy to solving the menace of protein energy mal-nutrition in the developing countries and it was also confirmed that lactic acid bacteria used as starter, control the growth of yeast and enteric bacteria there by increasing the safety and shelf life of the product.
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