Fast GC as a useful tool for authenticity assessment of kiwifruit
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Kiwifruit is one of the healthiest fruits due to its high content of biologically active substances and nutrients. The most popular species of Actinidia (kiwifruit) are the Actinidia deliciosa fruits called kiwi and Actinidia chinensis commonly called golden kiwi, while the lesser known species is Actinidia arguta known as mini kiwi. Bioactivities and nutrients of Actinidia are influenced by species and cultivars. It is very important to find a way to distinguish kiwifruit samples from botanical and geographical origin. For this purpose, the possibility of application of electronic nose based on ultra-fast gas chromatography for differentiation three types of kiwifruit was investigated. A set of 18 samples of kiwifruits were analyzed by fast GC e-nose. This device contains two parallel chromatography columns with different polarity connected with two flame ionization detectors (μ-FIDs). Four data analysis methods were used: discriminant function analysis (DFA), principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), and statistical quality control (SQC). Application of e-nose based on fast GC system allows to effective and rapid compare of aroma profiles of three types of kiwifruits. PCA, DFA and SIMCA data analysis method were for visualization the discrimination between groups of kiwifruit species. The SQC method allowed to assess the quality of the samples. All of used chemometric methods allows for full discrimination of all groups of samples. In summary, the use of ultra-fast GC with four statistical methods can be used to discrimination of kiwifruit samples due to their botanical and geographical origins.
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