Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2021 | 152 | 69-81

Article title

Chemical and Biological Profiling of the N-Hexane Extract of Crude Honeybee Residue


Title variants

Languages of publication



The chemical and biological profiling of the n-hexane extract, TM of crude honeybee residue, CHR has been investigated. TM was obtained from crude honeybee by selective separation technique, soxhlet’s extraction, concentrated by simple distillation and dried under vacuum. The extract was profiled for its chemical characteristics: thin layer chromatography, TLC, Fourier Transform- Infra Red, FT-IR characterization, antioxidant and phytochemical screenings and biologically for its anti-infective effectiveness, using standard procedures. TM had a yield of 5.76%, multiple spots observed from its TLC when developed from two different solvent systems (EtOAc:n-hexane, 0.5/6 and 100% n-hexane); -O-H, -C=O, -C-Hsp3 and –C-O functional group units were obtained from the FT-IR analysis at the wave numbers (cm-1): 3516, 1736, 2918-2849 and 1173 respectively. It has shown a relative antioxidant activity when compared to those of the dark brown viscous crude honeybee and standards (natural and synthetic). The phytochemicals present include: steroids (terpenoids), quinones, saponins and alkaloids. TM showed relative antibacterial activities against strains of Staphylococcus aureues, Eschericia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumonae, in a dose concentration gradient when compared to the positive control: gentamycin. The highest and lowest activities were observed at 100 and 12.5 mg/mL of TM against the test organisms respectively. The study has established a preliminary investigation on the n-hexane extract of crude honeybee residue.






Physical description


  • Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Nigeria Stored Products and Research Institute of Nigeria, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria


  • [1] A.A. Abel and A.D. Banjo, Apitheraphy in Southern Nigeria: An assessment of therapeutic potentials of some honeybee products. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2(2) (2012) 9-15
  • [2] V. Bankova, S.L. Castro and M.C. Marcucci, Propolis: Recent advances in Chemistry and plant origin. Apidologie 31 (2000) 3-15
  • [3] B. Medhi, A. Puri, S. Upadhyay and L. Kaman,Topical application of honey in the treatment of wound healing: a meta analysis. JK Sci. 10 (2008) 166-169
  • [4] A.M. Ezz El-Arab, S.M. Girgis, M.E. Hegazy, A.B. Abd El-khalek, Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 6 (2006) 1-13
  • [5] M.K. Rakha, Z.I. Nabil and A.A. Hussein, Cardioactive and vasoactive effect of natural wild honey against cardiac malperformance induced by hyperadrenergic activity. J Med Food 11 (2008) 91-98
  • [6] T. Eteraf-Oskouei and M. Najafi, Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: A review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 16(6) (2013) 731-742
  • [7] L. Feng, A. Suresh, Z. Hongyan, T. Yasuhiro, E. Hiroyasu and K. Shigetoshi, chemical constituents of propolis from Myannar and their preferential cytotoxic against a human pancreatic cancer cell line. Journal of Natural Products 72 (2009) 1283-1287
  • [8] M.S. Jose and B. Vassya, Propolis: Is there a potential for development of new drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133(2010) 253-260
  • [9] J.M. Alvarez-Suarez, S. Tulipani, S. Romandini, E. Bertoli and M. Battino, Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review. Mediterr J Nutr Metab. 3 (2010) 15-23
  • [10] J.E. Johnson, H.A. Sepe, C.L. Miano, R.G. Brannan and A.L. Alderton, Honey inhibits lipid oxidation in ready-to-eat ground beef patties. Meat Sci. 70 (2005) 627-631
  • [11] N. Turkmen, F. Sari, E.S. Poyrazoglu and Y.S. Velioglu, Effects of prolonged heating on antioxidant activity and colour of honey food. Food Chem. 95 (2006) 653-657
  • [12] M. Al-Mamary, A. Al-Meeri and M. Al-Habori, M. Antioxidant activities and total phenolics of different types of honey. Nutr Res. 22 (2002) 1041-1047
  • [13] A.A. Al-Jabri, Honey, milk and antibiotics. Afr J Biotechnol. 4 (2005) 1580-1587
  • [14] I.M. Emsen, A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: Medical honey application. Burns 33 (2007) 782-787
  • [15] V. Bansal, B. Medhi and P. Pandhi, Honey-A remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 3 (2005) 305-309
  • [16] L. Estevinho, A.P. Pereira, L.G. Moreira, L. Dias and E. Pereira, Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds extracts of Northeast Portugal Honey. Food Chem Toxicol. 46 (2008) 3774-3779
  • [17] M. Küҫük, S. Kolayi, S. Koraoḡlu, E. Ulusoy, C. Baltaci and F. Candan, Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia. Food Chem. 100 (2007) 526-534
  • [18] A. Meda, E.C. Lamien, J. Millogo, M. Romito and O.G. Nacoulma, Ethnopharmacological communication therapeutic uses of honey and honeybee larvae in central Burkina Faso. J Ethnopharmacol. 95 (2004) 103-107
  • [19] A.J. Tonks, R.A. Cooper, K.P. Jones, S. Blair, J. Parton and A. Tonks, Honey stimulates inflammatory cytokine production from monocytes. Cytokine 21 (2003) 242-247
  • [20] T. Sewllam, N. Miyanaga, M. Onozawa, K. Hattori, K. Kawari, T. Shimazui and H. Akaza, Antineoplastic activity of honey in an experimental bladder cancer implantation model: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int. J. Urol. 10 (2003) 213-219
  • [21] N.S. Al-Waili and A. Haq, Effect of honey on antibody production against thymus-dependent and thymus independent antigens in primary and secondary immune responses. J. Med. Food. 7 (2004) 491-494
  • [22] E.O. Odokwo and M.S. Onifade, Free radical scavenging effect of 2-(3-[3-Nitrophenylamino] propanoyloxy)-benzoic acid. International Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Processes 4(2) (2018) 9-13
  • [23] G.K. Oloyede, I.E. Willie and O.O. Adeeko, Synthesis of mannich bases: 2-(3-phenylaminopropionyloxy)-benzoic acid and 3-phenylamino-1-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)-propan-1-one, their toxicity, ionization constant, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry 165 (2014) 515-521
  • [24] E.D. Kpomah and E.O. Odokwo, Comparative phytochemical, proximate and some mineral composition of the leaves and stem bark of Spondia mombin (L. anacardiaceae). Annual Research and Review in Biology 35(6) (2020) 90-98
  • [25] C.U. Okeke and I. Elekwa, Proximate and preliminary phytochemical analysis of Avocado pears (Persia gratissima). Niger J. Bot. 19 (2006) 156-163
  • [26] Association of Analytical Chemists (Official methods of analysis) AOAC (15th Ed.). Williams, S. (Ed.). Association of official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C. 1990; 152-164.
  • [27] E.O. Odokwo and R.A. Salawu, Entericidal significance of 2-(3-[3-Nitrophenylamino] propanoyloxy)-benzoic acid. International Journal of Basic Science and Technology 4(2) (2018) 67-70
  • [28] P. Mendel, K.M. Tarum and G. Mitali. Free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis in the leaf and stem of Drymaria diandra. International Journal of Integrative Biology 7(2) (2009) 80-83
  • [29] V.A. Rogozkin (1991). Metabolism of Androgenic Steroids. CRC Press. Pp. 1-19.
  • [30] K. Urich (1994). Comparative Animal Biochemistry. Springer Science and Business Media. Pp. 624-656.
  • [31] B. Halliwell, Oxidative stress and cancer: Have we moved forward? Biochem. J. 401(1) (2007) 1-11
  • [32] A. Ramond, D. Godin-Ribuot, C. Ribuot, P. Totoson, I. Koritchneva, S. Cachot, P. Levy and M. Joyeux-Faure, Oxidative stress mediates cardiac infarction aggravation induced by intermittent hypoxia. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 27(3) (2013) 252-261
  • [33] L. Loffredo and F. Violi, Covid-19 and cardiovascular injury: A role for oxidative stress and antioxidant treatment. International Journal of Cardiology 312 (2020) 136
  • [34] N. Singh, A.K. Dhalla, C. Seneviratne and P.K. Singal, Oxidative stress and Heart failure. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 147(1-2) (1995) 77-81
  • [35] O.M. Dean, M. van den Buuse, M. Berk, D.L. Copolov, C. Mavros and A.L. Bush, N-acetyl cysteine restores brain glutathione loss in combined 2-cyclohexene-1-one and D-amphetamine treated rats: Relevance to Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neurosci. Lett. 499(3) (2011) 149-153
  • [36] J. Amer, H. Ghoti, E. Rachmileroitz, A. Koren, C. Levine and E. Fibach, Red blood cells, platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils of patients with sickle cell disease exhibit oxidative stress that can be ameliorated by antioxidants. Br. J. Haematol. 132 (1) (2006) 108-113
  • [37] C. Romá-Mateo, C. Aguado, J.L. Garcia-Giménez, J.S. Ibāňez-Cabellos, M. Seco-Cervera, F.V. Pallardó, E. Knecht and P. Sanz, Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease. Mol. Neurobiol. 51(3) (2015) 932-946
  • [38] M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J.Moncol, M.T. Cronin, M. Mazur and J. Telser, Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39 (1) (2007) 44-84
  • [39] O. Hwang, Role of oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease. Exp. Neurobiol. 22(1) (2013) 11-17
  • [40] F. Bonomini, S. Tengattini, A. Fabiano, R. Bianchi and R. Rezzani, Atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Histol. Histopathol. 23(3) (2008) 381-390
  • [41] O. Arican and E.B. Kunitas, Oxidative stress in the blood of patients with active localized vitiligo. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 17(1) (2008) 12-16
  • [42] Y. de Diego-Otero, Y. Romero-Zerbo, R. el Bekay, J. Decara, L. Sanchez, F. Rodriguez-de Fonseca and I. del Arco-Herrera, Alpha-tocopherol protects against oxidative stress in the fragile X knockout mouse: An experimental therapeutic approach for the Fmr 1 deficiency. Neuropsychopharmacology. 34(4) (2009) 1011-1126
  • [43] S.J. James, P. Cutler, S. Melnyk, S. Jernigan, L. Janak, D.W. Gaylor and J.A. Neubrander, Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80(6) (2004) 1611-1617
  • [44] S. Jiménez- Fernāndez, M. Gurpegui, F. Diaz-Atienza, L. Pérez-Costillas, M. Gerstenberg and C.U. Correll, Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in patients with major depressive disorder compared to healthy controls before and after antidepressant treatment results from a meta-analysis. J. Clin Psychiatry. 76(12) (2015) 1658-1667
  • [45] D.G. Aly and R.S. Shahin, Oxidative stress in lichen planus. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 19(1) (2010) 3-11
  • [46] O. Handa, Y. Naito and T. Yoshikawa, Redox biology and gastric carcinogenesis: the role of Helicobacter pylori. Redox Rep. 16(1) (2011) 1-7
  • [47] M. Hayyan, M.A. Hashin and I.M. Al Nashef, Superoxide ion: Generation and chemical implications. Chemical Reviews 116(5) (2016) 3029-3085
  • [48] J.F. Turrens, Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species. The Journal of Physiology 552(2) (2003) 335-344

Document Type


Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.