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2013 | 13 | 3 | 201–207
Article title

Aspekty kliniczne chorób prionowych

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Title variants
EN
Clinical aspects of prion diseases
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
Human prion disease is divided into three broad classes: idiopathic, genetic and acquired, reflecting different causation with resulting variations in clinical and neuropathological features. There are significant differences in clinical presentation both between and within these three groups, but all are progressive, fatal brain diseases with dementia, cerebellar ataxia and involuntary movements being particularly prominent features. Absolutely definite diagnosis requires neuropathological analysis of brain tissue (via cerebral biopsy in life or at autopsy) but there are established clinical diagnostic criteria and a variety of supportive investigations including abnormalities in the EEG, cerebral MRI, PRNP genetic analysis and CSF protein analysis. The precise results of these supportive investigations and their diagnostic utility vary somewhat depending on the type of prion disease. For example, EEG periodic discharges are a characteristic finding in sporadic but not variant CJD, for variant CJD, tonsil biopsy is an additional test and, in genetic prion disease, blood testing is possible for pathogenic PRNP mutations.
PL
Choroby prionowe człowieka dzielą się na trzy duże grupy: idiopatyczne, genetycznie uwarunkowane i nabyte. Wszystkie grupy charakteryzują się obecnością postępującej encefalopatii (zwykle z zaznaczonym otępieniem), zawsze śmiertelnej (nie ma obecnie udowodnionego efektywnego leczenia). Definitywne rozpoznanie opiera się na badaniu neuropatologicznym tkanek mózgu, które zwykle przeprowadza się w wyniku autopsji, niemniej istnieją rzadkie wskazania do wykonania biopsji mózgu. Istnieją znaczące różnice w obrazie klinicznym, zarówno pomiędzy tymi grupami, jak i w ich obrębie, jednak wszystkie są postępującymi, śmiertelnymi chorobami mózgu, przebiegającymi z otępieniem, ataksją móżdżkową i ruchami mimowolnymi jako szczególnie zaznaczonymi cechami. Definitywne rozpoznanie wymaga badania neuropatologicznego tkanek mózgu. Istnieją jednak ustalone kryteria kliniczne oraz badania wspierające, obejmujące EEG, MRI i analizę płynu mózgowo-rdzeniowego, które pomagają w wykluczeniu lub potwierdzeniu przypuszczenia choroby prionowej. Dla wariantu CJD dodatkowym testem diagnostycznym jest biopsja migdałków, a w przypadku chorób genetycznych istnieje możliwość testowania krwi, celem wykrycia mutacji genu PRNP. Najczęstszą chorobą prionową jest sporadyczna postać choroby Creutzfeldta-Jakoba (sCJD) o nieznanej etiologii.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
13
Issue
3
Pages
201–207
Physical description
Contributors
  • National CJD Research & Surveillance Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Wielka Brytania
References
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Document Type
article
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-a96d34b7-190d-4621-a38b-b75ba46a06be
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