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2019 | 25 | 188-198
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Antimicrobial studies and phytochemical analysis of the fruits and leaves of Cnestis ferruginea

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Few studies have shown that Cnestis ferruginea possess some therapeutic properties. The present study was aimed screening the extracts of the fruits and leaves of Cnestis ferruginea for phytochemicals using crude screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) methods, and also antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates. Preparation of the extracts (aqueous and ethanolic), identification of isolates, and antimicrobial sensitivity were done using previously reported standard methodologies. Replicate readings for the antimicrobial sensitivity were analysed using analysis of variance at 95% level of significance. The result of the crude qualitative screening revealed the presence of phenol, terpenes, alkaloids, saponins, tannin and polyphenol in various amounts in both the leaves and fruits. Quantitative analysis using GC-MS revealed a total of 14 similar phytochemicals each in the leaves and fruits of the study plant in varying amounts. In the fruits, phenol had the highest concentration of 15.01%, followed by terpenes (10.64%), alkaloid (5.43%), and tannins (5.16%). Others were anthocyanins, phytate, phytosterol, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, oxalate, flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides and coumarin with concentrations that ranged from to 0.01- 4.21%. On the other hand, in the leaves, alkaloids had the highest concentration of 31.62%, followed by phenol (20.59%), phytate (15.18%), and tannin (12.34%). Others include were flavonoid, terpenes, phytosterol, cardiac glycosides, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, oxalate, anthocyanins, steroids and coumarin with concentrations that ranged from 0.16-8.45%. The isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus spp. The results of the antimicrobial sensitivity revealed varying zones of inhibitions; however, it increased as the concentration of the extract increased. The observed highest zones of inhibitions were 33.86 mm for the fruit ethanolic extract and 30.56 mm for the aqueous extract of the leaves against Proteus and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively.
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  • Obong University, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Obong University, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Department of Physiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Obong University, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
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