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2018 | 6 | 100-109
Article title

Effect of difficulty manipulation strategies on acquisition, retention and associated perceptions in fine motor coordination task learning in young school boys

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This study investigated whether difficulty manipulation strategies affect learning in the fine motor coordination task, perceived competence (PC) and perceived difficulty (PD). Thirty -nine novices’ right - handed boys (age 11.3 ± 0.4 years; stature 147 ± 8.94 cm ; body mass 40.57 ± 0.07 kg; mean ± SD), volunteers, were assigned to either control group (CTG: no difficulty manipulation)and two experimental groups: group 1 (EG1: one -dimension difficulty manipulation) and group 2 (EG2: two- dimensions difficulty manipu lation). All protocol sessions were conducted at the same time -of-day, in which, there were three periods: familiarization, acquisition and retention phases. Moreover, two stress- conditions of darts throw were investigated (i.e.: free condition (FC) and ti me pressure condition (TPC)). Results showed significant effect between - groups (p = 0.01, η2 = 0.215) based on difficulty strategies manipulation. Analysis showed an improvement in accuracy values in retention tests for only EG1and a significant l ower coefficient of variation (p = 0.41, η2 = 0.154) compared to the CTG and EG2. Errors decrease over time for CTG in FC (p = 0.041, η2= 0.203) but not in TPC, while no significant differences in errors for EG1 and EG2 (p = 0.19, η2 = 0.911) in the two st ress -conditions. Moreover, PD was significantly different between all test - phases (p = 0.041, η2 = 0.234) for EG1 only. The one -dimension learning strategy improves retention in accuracy performances, whereas, both strategies, do not affect errors in both FC and TPC . Therefore, teachers in physical education are not encouraged to combine difficulties in learning process of a novel fine motor coordination task.

Physical description
  • High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Sfax, Tunisia
  • Faculty of Sciences, Carthage University, Bizerte,Tunisia
  • High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Sfax, Tunisia
  • High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Sfax, Tunisia
  • High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Said, Mannouba University, Tunis, Tunisia
  • Department of Physical Education, College of Education, King Faisal Univ ersity, Al - Hufŭf, KSA
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