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2015 | 15 | 60 | 72-84
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Entezopatie i zapalenie entez. Część I. Etiopatogeneza

Title variants
Enthesopathies and enthesitis. Part 1. Etiopathogenesis
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The pathologies of tendon and ligament attachments are called enthesopathies. One of its types is enthesitis which is a characteristic sign of peripheral spondyloarthropathy. Clinical diagnosis of enthesitis is based on rather non-specific clinical signs and results of laboratory tests. Imaging examinations are highly promising. Numerous publications prove that enthesitis can be differentiated from other enthesopathic processes in an ultrasound examination or magnetic resonance imaging. However, some reports indicate the lack of histological criteria, specific immunological changes and features in imaging examinations that would allow the clinical diagnosis of enthesitis to be confirmed. The first part of the publication presents theories on the etiopathogenesis of enthesopathies: inflammatory, mechanical, autoimmune, genetic and associated with the synovio-entheseal complex, as well as theories on the formation of enthesophytes: inflammatory, molecular and mechanical. The second part of the paper is a review of the state-of-the-art on the ability of imaging examinations to diagnose enthesitis. It indicates that none of the criteria of inflammation used in imaging medicine is specific for this pathology. As enthesitis may be the only symptom of early spondyloarthropathy (particularly in patients with absent HLA-B27 receptor), the lack of its unambiguous picture in ultrasound and magnetic resonance scans prompts the search for other signs characteristic of this disease and more specific markers in imaging in order to establish diagnosis as early as possible.
Patologie przyczepów ścięgien i więzadeł są określane mianem entezopatii. Jednym z rodzajów entezopatii jest zapalenie (enthesitis), które stanowi charakterystyczny objaw spondyloartropatii obwodowych. Enthesitis jest rozpoznawane przez klinicystów na podstawie mało specyficznych objawów klinicznych i wyników badań laboratoryjnych. Duże nadzieje wiązane są z badaniami obrazowymi. Wiele prac naukowych dowodzi możliwości różnicowania zapalenia entez z innymi procesami entezopatycznymi w badaniach ultrasonograficznych albo metodą rezonansu magnetycznego. W sprzeczności pozostają doniesienia wskazujące na brak kryteriów histologicznych, specyficznych zmian immunologicznych oraz cech w badaniach obrazowych pozwalających na potwierdzenie klinicznego rozpoznania zapalenia. W pierwszej części publikacji przedstawiono teorie etiopatogenezy entezopatii: zapalną, mechaniczną, kompleksu entezy, autoimmunologiczną i genetyczną oraz koncepcje powstawania entezofitów: zapalną, molekularną i mechaniczną. Druga część pracy stanowi przegląd aktualnej wiedzy na temat możliwości badań obrazowych w rozpoznawaniu enthesitis. Wskazuje on, że żadne ze stosowanych w badaniach obrazowych kryteriów zapalenia nie jest specyficzne dla tej patologii. Ze względu na fakt, że może być ono jedynym objawem spondyloartropatii w początkowym ich okresie (zwłaszcza u chorych z nieobecnym antygenem HLA-B27), brak jednoznacznego obrazu enthesitis w badaniach ultrasonograficznych i rezonansu magnetycznego wymaga poszukiwania innych objawów charakterystycznych dla tych chorób oraz bardziej specyficznych markerów w badaniach obrazowych w celu jak najszybszego ustalenia rozpoznania.
Physical description
  • Department of Radiology, Institute of Rheumatology, Warsaw, Poland. Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty, Warsaw Medical University, Poland
  • Early Arthritis Clinic, Institute of Rheumatology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Diagnostic Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. Department of Pathophysiology, Immunology, and Pathological Anatomy, Institute of Rheumatology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Pathophysiology, Immunology, and Pathological Anatomy, Institute of Rheumatology, Warsaw, Poland
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