Synthesis and characterization of epoxy methacrylate of (E)-1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one and its jute/glass composites
Languages of publication
Epoxy methacrylate of (E)-1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (EMC) has been synthesized by condensing 1 equivi. (318g) epoxy resin of (E)-1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one and 2.1 equivi. (181g) methacrylic acid using 10 ml triethyl amine as a catalyst, 2.5 g hydroquinone as an inhibitor and 350 ml tetrahydrofuran as a solvent at reflux temperature for 1-7 h. Styrene was used as a reactive diluent. The structure of EMC was supported by FTIR and 1H NMR techniques. EMC showed endothermic transition at 118 °C and 307 °C, respectively due to melting and crosslinking followed by decomposition reaction and EMCS showed endothermic transitions at 81 °C and 255 °C due to branched and uncrosslinked EMCS and some physical change. EMC and EMCS are thermally stable up to about 265 and 332, respectively. EMC followed two steps degradation kinetics, while EMCS followed single step degradation kinetics. Jute and glass composites of EMCS were fabricated by hand lay-up technique followed by compression molding under 20 bar pressure and at 120 °C for 4 h. J-EMCS and G-EMCS showed 22.7 and 182 MPa tensile strength; 10.9 and 156.5 MPa flexural strength; 3.1 and 1.6 kV mm-1 electric strength; and 2.2 x 1012 and 2.8 x 1011 Ohm cm volume resistivity. Both J-EMCS and G-EMCS showed excellent hydrolytic stability even in harsh acidic and saline environments and also in boiling water. Observed equilibrium water content at 35 °C for J-EMCS and G-EMCS in water, 10% of aq. NaCl, and 10% of aq. HCl are 8.8, 10.8, and 8.7% ; 5.8, 4.6, and 4.7%, respectively. The composites may be useful for low load bearing housing units, and in electrical, electronic and marine fields.
-  Herzog B, Gardner DJ, Lopez-Anido R, Goodell B. “Glass-transition temperature based on dynamic mechanical thermal analysis techniques as an indicator of the adhesive performance of vinyl ester resin.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 97 (2005) 2221-2229.
-  Ratna D, Khan S, Barman S, Chakraborty BC. “Synthesis of vinylester-clay nanocomposites: Influence of the nature of clay on mechanical, thermal and barrier properties.” The open Macromol. J., 6 (2012) 59-67.
-  Kumar MN, Siddaramaiah. “Studies on acrylonitrile-butadiene (NBR) latex reinforced jute nonwoven fabric composites: Chemical resistance, mechanical properties, and water absorption.” Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 45 (2006) 409-414.
-  Ollier R, Stocchi A, Rodriguez E, Alvarez V. “Effect of thermoplastic incorporation on the performance of thermosetting matrix.” Mater. Sci. Appl. 3 (2012) 442-447.
-  Gryshchuk O, Karger-Kocsis J, Thomann R, Konya Z, Kiricsi I. “Multiwall carbon nanotube modified vinylester and vinylester – based hybrid resins.” Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 37 (2006) 1252-1259.
-  Lu S, Hamerton I. “Recent developments in the chemistry of halogen-free flame retardant polymers.” Prog. Polym. Sci. 27 (2002) 1661-1712.
-  Adroja PP, Ghumara RY, Parsania PH. “Physico-chemical study of chalcone moiety containing epoxy resin and its fiber reinforced composites.” Desig. Monom. Polym. 16 (2012) 503-508.
-  Adroja PP, Koradiya SB, Parsania PH. “Synthesis, curing behavior and characterization of epoxyacylate and triethylamine cured epoxy resin of 1,1′-bis(3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane.” Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 50 (2011) 52–58.
-  Koradiya SB, Patel JP, Parsania PH. “The preparation and physicochemical study of glass, jute and hybrid glass-jute bisphenol-C-based epoxy resin composites.” Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. 49 (2010) 1445–1449.
-  Jaswal S, Gaur B. “Curing and decomposition behaviour of cresol novolac based vinyl ester resin.” J. Chem. Eng. Trans. 32 (2013) 1591-1596.
-  Patel RD, Thakkar JR, Patel RG, Patel VS, “Glass-reinforced vinyl ester resin composites.” High Perform. Polym. 2 (1990) 261-265.
-  Li L, Sun X, and Lee LJ. “Low temperature cure of vinyl ester resins.” Polym. Eng. Sci. 39 (1999) 646-661.
-  Stocchi A, Rodrıguez E, Vazquez A, Bernal C. “Deformation and fracture behaviours of vinylester/fly ash composites.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci.128 (2013) 1547-1556.
-  Rodriguez-Mellaa Y, López-Moránb T, López-Quintelac MA, Lazzari M. “Durability of an industrial epoxy vinyl ester resin used for the fabrication of a contemporary art sculpture.” Polym. Degrad. Stab. 107 (2014) 277-284.
-  Gupta N, Ye R, Porfiri M. “Comparison of tensile and compressive characteristics of vinyl ester/glass microballoon syntactic foams.” Compos. Part B: Eng. 41 (2010) 236-245.
-  Chauhan SR, Gaur B, Dass K. “Effect of fiber loading on mechanical properties, friction and wear behaviour of vinylester composites under dry and water lubricated conditions.” Int. J. Mater. Sci. (2011) 1-8.
-  Chawla TS, Cavalli MN. “Mechanical evaluation of repair resins for fiber-glass wind turbine blades”. J. Compos. Mater. 0 (2014) 1-11.
-  Panfborn AB, Giardello MA, Grubbs RH, Rosen RK, and Timmers FJ. “Safe and convenient procedure for solvent purification.” Organometallics. 15 (1996) 1518-1520.
-  ASTM D 1980-87. (1998), Standard method for acid value of fatty acids and polymerized fatty acid.
-  Freeman ES, Anderson DA. “Kinetics of the thermal degradation of polystyrene and polyethylene.” J. Polym. Sci. 54 (1961) 253-260.
-  J. V. Patel, J. P. Patel, R. D. Bhatt and P. H. Parsania “Mechanical and electrical properties of jute-biomass-styrenated methacrylate epoxy resin sandwich composites”. J. Sci. Indus. Res. 74 (2015) 577-581.
-  Collings TA. “Moisture absorption- Fickian diffusion kinetics and moisture profiles. In: Jones FR, editor. Handbook of polymer-fiber composites.” Horlow: Longman Scientific and Technical; (1994). p. 366-371.
-  Koradiya SB, Patel JP, Parsania PH, “The preparation and physico chemical study of glass, jute and hybrid glass-jute bisphenol-C-based epoxy resin composites.” Polym. Plast Tech. Eng. 49 (2010) 1445-1449.
-  Pavlidou S, Papaspyrides CD, “The effect of hygrothermal history on water sorption and interlaminar shear strength of glass/polyester composites with different interfacial strength.” Compos. Part. A: Appl. Sci Manuf. 34 (2003) 1117-1124.
-  Lin-Gibson S, Baranauskas V, Riffle JS, Sorathia U. “Cresol novolac–epoxy networks: properties and processability.” Polym. 43 (2002) 7389-7398.
Publication order reference