Spatial and temporal patterns of ocean variability using empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) in the Southern Java Waters
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The oceanographic parameters of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from NOAA/AVHRR, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from SeaWiFS and Modis/Aqua, Sea Surface Height Anomaly (SSHA) and eddy kinetic energy (EKE) from from TOPEX and Poseidon ERS-1/2 are used to understand the oceanographic variability in the Southern Java Waters. Analyses were done using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and wavelet spectrum analysis in order to know spatial and temporal distributions related to the main forcing of the ocean climate variability for the period of January 1997 to December 2008 (12 years). The first EOF modes of Chl-a, SSHA and SST accounted for 42.8%, 36.5%, and 27.4% of total variance, corresponded with interannual signal for all the first modes, respectively. The spatial patterns of the first and second EOF modes of SSHA, SST and Chl-a gave a very typical cold water of SSHA, low SST and high Chl-a concentration located along the southern coast of Indonesian archipelago and warm water of SSHA, high SST and much less Chl-a concentration in the offshore region to make frontal areas along the latitudinal line around 10–12ºS. The results showed that total variance of the first two mode of SSHA, SST, and Chl-a explain 59.94%, 35.52%, and 55.26 %, respectively. These infer that SSHA and Chl-a give more response to the climate variability of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing in the study area.
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