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2018 | 21 | 1 | 7-19
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Arsen w środowisku człowieka

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EN
Arsenic in human environment
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PL EN
Abstracts
EN
In literature on arsenic toxicology, little is known about the concentration of arsenic in the air. Inhalation exposure to arsenic is mainly related to the presence of stationary sources of arsenic, such as pyrometallurgical nonferrous metal installations, e.g., copper smelters active in the past and present. Inhalation exposure is important in workers who are occupationally exposed to arsenic and not very important in a population environmentally exposed to this metalloid. Copper smelters emit arsenic into the air in the form of dust and aerosols. The size of the molecules of arsenic compounds in the air depends on the state of steelworks products (metallurgical vapors contain small particles with a diameter of <1 µm, and solid metallurgical wastes contain larger particles with a diameter of >1 µm). Metallurgical smokes are more dangerous to the body because small particles easily penetrate through the respiratory tract and enter the bloodstream. They also have a greater bioavailability following from a larger surface to volume ratio. In the world population, the main route of absorption of arsenic is the digestive tract. The main source of exposure is drinking water, and the highest degree of arsenic contamination occurs in Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, India, Argentina, and Mexico. Arsenic in food can be a significant risk, especially for infants and young children. The assessment of arsenic impact on human health requires the assessment of total exposure to arsenic, in which the inhalation route is a minor part
PL
W literaturze poświęconej toksykologii arsenu, mało danych dotyczy stężeń arsenu w powietrzu. Narażenie inhalacyjne na arsen jest związane głównie z obecnością stacjonarnych źródeł arsenu, takich jak pirometalurgiczne instalacje metali nieżelaznych, np. huty miedzi aktywne w przeszłości i obecnie. Narażenie drogą wziewną jest istotne u pracowników zawodowo narażonych na arsen i mało istotne w populacjach narażonych na arsen pozazawodowo. Huty miedzi są emiterami arsenu do powietrza w postaci pyłu zawieszonego i aerozoli. Wielkość cząsteczek związków arsenu w powietrzu zależy od stanu produktów huty (opary hutnicze zawierają cząstki małe o średnicy <1 µm, stałe odpady hutnicze zawierają cząstki większe o średnicy >1 µm). Dymy hutnicze są bardziej groźne dla organizmu, ponieważ małe cząstki łatwiej penetrują przez układ oddechowy i przedostają się do krwioobiegu; mają też większą biodostępność w następstwie większego stosunku powierzchni do objętości. W skali świata, główną drogą wchłaniania arsenu jest przewód pokarmowy. Podstawowym źródłem narażenia jest woda pitna, a największy stopień skażenia wody arsenem występuje w Australii, Nowej Zelandii, Tajlandii, Indiach, Argentynie i Meksyku. Arsen zawarty w żywności może być istotnym zagrożeniem, szczególnie dla niemowląt i małych dzieci. W ocenie wpływu arsenu na stan zdrowia potrzebna jest ocena całkowitej ekspozycji na arsen, w której droga inhalacyjna stanowi niewielką część.
Publisher

Year
Volume
21
Issue
1
Pages
7-19
Physical description
Contributors
  • Katedra i Klinika Chorób Wewnętrznych, Zawodowych i Nadciśnienia Tętniczego Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu
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Document Type
paper
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-9d7c544b-72b3-4ab5-be0a-7f10427d32cb
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