Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 5 | 1 | 15-26
Article title


Title variants
Languages of publication
While diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is clear, misconceptions of ASD create barriers and challenges for children with ASD and their interaction in the educational environment around them.

The social model of disability states people with disabilities are more limited by social constraints than actual impairment (Llewellyn and Hogan, 2000). In hopes to diminish these social constraints, continued education and progression of programs for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders is essential.

When observing the different teaching strategies educators used to assist children with ASD, no one educational strategy was deemed appropriate for use. Findings revealed there were no defined guidelines on how to interact with autistic children and left teachers to use their own teaching methods. Literature reflect a lack of educational strategies for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in an academic setting; at the various grade levels. One of the newer strategies to be investigated is the role of physical activity in children with ASD.

Regular physical activity is highly beneficial towards the health of all children with or without disabilities. However, social and behavioral impairments leave little opportunity for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in participating in physical activity; resulting in a possible higher risk of being inactive.

Exercise options such as martial arts, swimming and yoga programs have been shown to be successful for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
  • Murray State University, Department of Applied Health Sciences, USA
  • Brigham Young University, USA
  • HR-OD for Technology Change Management, Mercy Health System, USA
  • American Academy of Pediatrics. (2007). Retrieved from
  • American Heart Association. (2013). Retrieved from
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostics and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC 2000.
  • Block M. E., Block V. E., & Halliday P. What Is autism? Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 17(6), November, 2006: 7-11.
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from
  • Davies P. S., Jaughin C. Using stable isotopes to assess reduced physical activity and of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation. 1993; 98: 349-353.
  • Davis K. D. Adapted physical education for students with autism. Chicago, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 1990.
  • Evans D. W., Canavera K., Kleinpeter F. L., Maccubbin E. & Taga K. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children [Electronic version]. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 2005; 36(Fall): 3-25.
  • Groft-Jones M. & Block M. E. Strategies for teaching children with autism in physical education. Teaching Elementary Physical Education. 2006; November: 25-28.
  • Hellings J. A. Psychopharmacology of mood disorders in persons with mental retardation and autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, Special Issue: Psychopharmacology in Developmental Disabilities. 2000; 5(4): 270-278.
  • Hess K. L., Morrier M. J., Heflin J. L., & Ivey M. L. Autism treatment survey: Services received by children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in public school classrooms. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007; 38: 961-971 from Springer.
  • Hovey, K. Six steps for planning a fitness circuit for individuals with Autism. Strategies. 2011; (May/June): 12-15.
  • Huettig C. & Darden-Melton B. Acquisition of aquatic skills by children with autism. Palestra. 2004; 20(2): 20-27.
  • Kodish S., Kulinna P., Martin J., Pangrazi R. & Darst P. Determinants of physical activity in an inclusive setting. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 2006: 390-409.
  • Llewellyn A. & Hogan K. The use and abuse of models of disability. Disability & Society. 2000; 15(1): 157-165.
  • Mundy P. & Markus J. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews. John Wiley & Sons. 1997.
  • National Institutes of Health. (2008). Retrieved from
  • Nixon P. A., Orenstein D. M. & Kelsey S. F. Habitual physical activity in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2001; 33: 30-35.
  • Pan C.-Y. & Frey G. C. Identifying physical activity determinants in youth with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2005; 2: 410-420.
  • Pan C.-Y. & Frey G. C. Physical activity patterns in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2006; 36: 597-606.
  • Pan C.-Y. Objectively measured physical activity between children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and children without disabilities during inclusive recess settings in Taiwan. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007; 38: 1292-1301.
  • Pine D. S., Guyer A. E., Goldwin M., Towbin K. A., & Leibenluft E. Autism Spectrum Disorder scale scores in pediatric mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2008; 47(6): 652–661.
  • Pitetti K. H., Rendoff A. D., Grover T., & Beets M. W. The efficacy of a 9-month treadmill walking program on the exercise capacity and weight reduction for adolescents with severe autism. Spring Science & Business Media. 2007: 997-1006.
  • Radhakrishna S. Application of integrated yoga therapy to increase imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Yoga (3). 2010; (Jan-Jun): 26-30.
  • Reid G., Collier D., & Cauchon M. Skill acquisition by children with autism: Influence of prompts. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 1991; 8: 357-366
  • Reid G., O'Connor J., & Lloyd M. The Autism Spectrum Disorders physical activity instruction - Part III. 2003; 19(2): 20-48.
  • Rosenthal-Malek A. & Mitchell S. Brief Report: The effects of exercise on the self-stimulatory behaviors and positive responding of adolescents with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 1997; 27(2): 193-202.
  • Sandt D. D. R. & Frey G. C. Comparison of physical activity levels between children with and without autistic spectrum disorders. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 2005; 22(2).
  • Scott S., Kozub M. F., & Goto K. Tae Kwon Do for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Palaestra. 2005; 21(1): 40-43.
  • Sherrill C. Adapted physical activity, recreation, and sport: Crossdisciplinary and lifespan (5th ed.). Boston, MA: WCB McGraw-Hill. 1998.
  • Simpson R. L., de Boer-Ott S. R., Griswold D. E., Myles B. S., Byrd S. E., Ganz J. B. et al. Autism spectrum disorders: Interventions and treatments for children and youth. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 2005.
  • Sterling L., Dawson G., Estes A., & Greenson J. Characteristics associated with presence of depressive symptoms in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder [Electronic version]. Autism Development Disorders. 2007; 38: 1011-1018 from Springer.
  • Trudeau F., & Shepard, R. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance [Electronic version]. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2008; 5(10): 1-20.
  • Van den Berg-Emons H. J. G., Sarus W. H. M., de Barbanson D. C., Westerterp K. R., Huson A., & van Baak M. A. Daily physical activity of schoolchildren with spastic diplegia and of healthy control subjects. Journal of Pediatrics. 1995; 137: 578-584.
  • Yilmaz I., Yanardag M., Birkan B., & Bumin G. Effects of swimming training on physical fitness and water orientation in autism. Pediatrics International. 2004; (46)(October): 624-626.
  • Yuill N., Strieth S., Roake C., Aspden R., & Todd B. Brief report: Designing a playground for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders - effects on playful peer interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007; 37: 1192-1196.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.