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2007 | 7 | 4 | 246-253
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Mechanizmy działania cytostatyków stosowanych w neurologii

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Mechanism of action of cytostatic drugs used in neurology
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The aim of this review is the presentation of molecular mechanisms of action of cytostatic drugs used in the therapy of neurological disorders, mostly of multiple sclerosis (MS). From many years cytostatics like mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, cladribine and methotrexate were used in the MS clinical trials. So far only mitoxantrone has been approved by FDA for the treatment of progressive MS. The other cytostatics are still studied in clinical trials, the main problem with their approval for human therapy are their numerous side effects. So far those drugs are mostly used in oncology and haematology where the usage of this type of drugs is better justified. Now there are many studies leading to better understanding of mechanisms of action of cytostatics at the cellular and subcellular level. Mitoxantrone induces apoptosis and reduce the population of inflammatory egzocells capable to initiate demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). At the molecular level mitoxantrone damages genome of inflammatory cells by inhibition of activity of topoisomerase II (TOP II) or direct interaction with DNA structure. Cyclophosphamide is a cytostatic acting mainly on dividing cells, in which it alkylates DNA and interferes with replication and cell apoptosis. Methotrexate inhibits activity of dehydrofolate reductase what leads to disturbance of replication and blocks phase S of the cell cycle in leukocytes. Cladribine is an antagonist of transcription. The detailed analysis of these mechanisms may lead to diminishing of the level of their side effects and to increase of their therapeutic potential, also in neurological therapy.
Celem niniejszej pracy jest przedstawienie molekularnych mechanizmów działania cytostatyków stosowanych w próbach terapii niektórych chorób neurologicznych, głównie stwardnienia rozsianego (SM). Od wielu lat w terapii tego schorzenia próbuje się wykorzystywać takie cytostatyki, jak mitoksantron, cyklofosfamid, metotreksat i kladrybina. W chwili obecnej jedynym lekiem z tej grupy zatwierdzonym przez FDA do leczenia postępującego SM jest mitoksantron. Pozostałe cytostatyki wciąż poddawane są badaniom, a główny problem we wprowadzeniu ich do terapii neurologicznej stanowią liczne efekty uboczne. Leki te wykorzystywane są głównie w onkologii i hematologii, gdzie stosowanie tego typu leków jest bardziej uzasadnione. W chwili obecnej prowadzone są liczne badania zmierzające do lepszego poznania mechanizmów działania cytostatyków na poziomach komórkowym i subkomórkowym. Przyjmuje się, że mitoksantron indukuje apoptozę, co zmniejsza pulę komórek zapalnych zdolnych do wywoływania demielinizacji w obrębie ośrodkowego układu nerwowego (OUN). Na poziomie molekularnym mechanizm jego działania polega na uszkodzeniu genomu tych komórek poprzez hamowanie aktywności topoizomerazy II (TOPII) lub bezpośrednie wbudowywanie się w strukturę ich DNA. Cyklofosfamid jest cytostatykiem działającym w głównej mierze na komórki dzielące się, w których alkiluje on DNA, co indukuje zaburzenia replikacji oraz apoptozę tych komórek. Działanie lecznicze metotreksatu wynika ze zdolności do hamowania aktywności reduktazy dehydrofolianowej. W ten sposób zaburzony zostaje metabolizm zasad azotowych prowadzący do zaburzeń replikacji i bloku fazy S cyklu komórkowego leukocytów. Kladrybina działa jako antagonista procesu transkrypcji. Dokładne poznanie mechanizmów działania prezentowanych leków może doprowadzić do zmniejszenia nasilenia ich efektów ubocznych oraz do zwiększenia ich potencjału leczniczego, również w terapii neurologicznej.
Physical description
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