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2007 | 7 | 4 | 223-231
Article title

Udział chemokin i ich receptorów w patogenezie stwardnienia rozsianego

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EN
Chemokines and their receptors in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
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Abstracts
EN
Chemokines are relatively recently characterized and growing fast family of low molecular weight cytokines, which stimulate migration of cells in vitro and in vivo. Together with adhesion molecules chemokines are involved in the complex process of migration of leukocytes outside of blood vessels. They also direct their migration within inflamed peripheral tissues. Chemokines are divided into four subfamilies. The main criterion of this division is the localization of pairs of cysteines in the NH2 region. The major chemokine subfamilies are CXC (α) and CC (β) chemokines. In CC subfamily the first cysteines are adjacent, in CXC group they are separated by a single aminoacid. The exemptions are Lymphotactins α and β which posses only one pair of cysteines (C or γ subfamily) and Fractalkine, in which the first cysteines are separated by three aminoacids (CX3C or δ subfamily). Functionally chemokines can be divided into proinflammatory and lymphoid. Chemokines influence their target cells through the specific seven transmembrane domain receptors. They are the important mediators of migration of inflammatory cells to the central nervous system (CNS) during different pathological processes that’s why they became the target of interest in the studies on multiple sclerosis (MS). Analysis of MS brains showed significantly increased expression of chemokines CCL4 and CCL5 at mRNA level. In the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients during relapse increased level of chemokines CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 was detected. Within chronic active demyelinating plaques in MS brains expression of CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 was observed in macrophages and microglia.
PL
Chemokiny stanowią stosunkowo niedawno wyodrębnioną i szybko rozrastającą się rodzinę cytokin charakteryzujących się małym ciężarem cząsteczkowym oraz zdolnością stymulowania migracji komórek in vitro oraz in vivo. Chemokiny wspólnie z molekułami adhezyjnymi biorą udział w złożonym procesie przemieszczania się leukocytów poza łożysko naczyniowe. Ukierunkowują one również migrację leukocytów w obrębie tkanek obwodowych, gdzie rozwija się zapalenie. Chemokiny podzielono na cztery grupy. Decydującym kryterium podziału jest położenie względem siebie par cystein w okolicy końca NH2. Dwie największe grupy che-mokin to chemokiny CXC (α) i CC (β). W grupie CC dwie pierwsze następujące po sobie cysteiny pozostają nierozdzielone, podczas gdy w grupie CXC rozdziela je pojedynczy aminokwas. Wyjątkami są limfotaktyny α i β posiadające tylko jedną parę cystein (grupa chemokin C lub γ) oraz fraktalkina, u której dwie pary cystein oddzielają trzy inne aminokwasy (grupa CX3C lub δ). Ze względu na funkcję chemokiny można podzielić na prozapalne oraz limfoidalne. Chemokiny oddziałują na komórki docelowe za pośrednictwem swoistych receptorów charakteryzujących się obecnością siedmiu domen przezbłonowych. Będąc jednym z głównych czynników odpowiedzialnych za migrację komórek zapalnych do ośrodkowego układu nerwowego (OUN) w różnych procesach patologicznych, chemokiny stały się obiektem zainteresowania również w badaniach nad stwardnieniem rozsianym (SM). Analiza mózgów pacjentów z SM wykazała istotny wzrost ekspresji chemokin CCL4 i CCL5 na poziomie mRNA. W płynie mózgowo-rdzeniowym w okresie rzutu choroby stwierdzono podwyższony poziom chemokin CCL5, CXCL9 oraz CXCL10. U chorych z SM w obrębie przewlekłych aktywnych ognisk demielinizacyjnych stwierdzano komórki barwiące się w kierunku receptorów CCR2, CCR3 i CCR5, które odpowiadały morfologią makrofagom i mikroglejowi.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
7
Issue
4
Pages
223-231
Physical description
Contributors
  • Klinika Neurologii i Epileptologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi, ul. Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź, tel.: 042 639 35 91
  • Klinika Neurologii i Epileptologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi, ul. Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź, tel.: 042 639 35 91
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-9a8197a4-c871-48a7-a87e-b95f8663432d
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