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2011 | 11 | 1 | 49-63
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Choroba Gerstmanna-Sträusslera-Scheinkera

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EN
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease
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EN
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) is a hereditary form of prion disease. GSS, in particular the form caused by the PRNP gene P102L mutation, is transmissible to primates and rodents. Thus, GSS is a unique disease that is both genetic and transmissible; however, the exact nature of the transmissible agent is not clear. The clinical picture of GSS comprises cerebellar ataxia, dementia and pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. However, the disease is heterogeneous and in different families and different mutations the clinical picture may vary. The neuropathological picture is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques – mainly multicentric plaques. There are several models of GSS in transgenic mice and in Drosophila sp. In mice produced with an overexpressed transgene that carries the P101L mutation (corresponding to the P102L mutation in humans), “spontaneous” neurodegeneration is observed and this, in turn, is transmissible but to transgenic mice with a low copy number. In contrast, P101L transgenic mice produced by means of reciprocal recombination show no spontaneous neurodegeneration, but instead become more susceptible to transmission of human GSS following inoculation.
PL
Choroba Gerstmanna-Sträusslera-Scheinkera (GSS) jest genetycznie uwarunkowaną chorobą wywoływaną przez priony. Jest ona unikalna, ponieważ udało się przepasażować GSS na naczelne i gryzonie przynajmniej z mózgu obarczonego mutacją kodonu 102. Tym samym jest to jedyne schorzenie jednocześnie genetycznie uwarunkowane i zakaźne, aczkolwiek natura czynnika infekcyjnego (prionu) nadal stanowi przedmiot dyskusji. W obrazie klinicznym GSS dominuje postępująca ataksja móżdżkowa z towarzyszącym otępieniem i objawami piramidowo-pozapiramidowymi. Jest to jednak choroba heterogenna, o różnym obrazie klinicznym u nosicieli różnych mutacji, a nawet u nosicieli tej samej mutacji. Obraz neuropatologiczny obejmuje obecność PrPd – immunododatnich złogów amyloidu pod postacią blaszek, zwłaszcza tzw. blaszek wielordzeniowych. Istnieje kilka modeli GSS. U myszy transgenicznych z nadekspresją zmutowanego genu kodującego PrP obserwuje się spontaniczną chorobę zwyrodnieniową, pasażowalną na myszy transgeniczne o niskiej liczbie transgenu. U myszy transgenicznych uzyskanych drogą wzajemnej rekombinacji, a więc bez nadeskpresji, nie występuje choroba spontaniczna, niemniej stają się one wrażliwe na zakażenie GSS.
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11
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1
Pages
49-63
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References
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