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2016 | 15 | 3 | 5-14
Article title

Integrated Dynamometric, Kinematic And Electromyographic Characterisation Of A Swimming Track Start Block Phase – A Pilot Study

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EN
Abstracts
EN
This study presents a complete biomechanical analysis of the block phase of a swimming modified track start. Kinetic, kinematic and electromyography (EMG) data were collected. The forces produced by the swimmer on the block, the EMG of eight muscles and the kinematics of the centre of mass (CM) were recorded. A national-level swimmer performed three repetitions of a track start in a dynamometric starting block. Temporal instants ‘reaction time’, ‘hands take-off’, ‘rear foot take-off’ and ‘front foot take-off’ were identified. Results show the peak forces (Fmax) produced by the most dynamic limb in each sub-phase delimited by mentioned instants (right hand take-off: Fmaxvertical = 103 N; rear foot take-off: Fmaxantero-posterior = 524 N; front foot take-off: Fmaxvertical = 634 N). The CM revealed a descendent vertical trajectory along the block phase. Mean resultant speed at front foot take-off was 4.092m/s. The muscles with highest values of integral EMG (iEMG) were the tibialis anterior during hands take-off, Biceps Femoris and Gluteus Maximus during rear foot take-off, respectively 41.17%, 52.96% and 36.37% of the maximum isometric voluntary contraction (%MIVC). The study demonstrates an effective characterisation of the block phase in swimming starts with potential to evaluate the swimmers performance in the track start, using different back plate positioning.
Publisher

Year
Volume
15
Issue
3
Pages
5-14
Physical description
Contributors
author
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal, manuel.vitor@hotmail.com
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal
author
  • 1. Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal. 2. Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Portugal. 3. ESEIG, School of Management and Industrial Studies, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal
author
  • Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Portugal
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal
  • 1. Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal. 2. Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Portugal
  • Biomechanics Laboratory, Santa Catarina State University, Brazil
author
  • 1. Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Portugal. 2. FEUP, Faculty of Engineering, INEGI, University of Porto, Portugal.
  • 1. Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal. 2. Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Portugal.
  • 1. Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal. 2. Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Portugal.
References
  • de Jesus, K., de Jesus, K., Figueiredo, P., Gonçalves, P., Pereira, S., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Fernandes, R.J., (2011). Biomechanical analysis of backstroke swimming starts. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 546–551. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1273688.
  • de Jesus, K., de Jesus, K., Figueiredo, P., Gonçalves, P., Pereira, S., Vilar, S., …, Fernandes, R.J. (2011). Electromyographic analysis of the backstroke start with different feet positions. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 43, 619. DOI: 10.1249/01. MSS.0000401709.20735.41.
  • Figueiredo, P., Rouard, A., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Fernandes, R.J. (2013). Upper- and lower-limb muscular fatigue during the 200-m front crawl. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 38, 716–724. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2012-0263.
  • Figueiredo, P., Sanders, R., Gorski, T., (2012). Kinematic and Electromyographic Changes During 200m Front Crawl at Race Pace. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 49–55. DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1321889.
  • Garcia-Hermoso, A., Escalante, Y., Arellano, R., Navarro, F., Domínguez, A.M., Saavedra, J.M. (2013). Relationship Between Final Performance and Block Times with the Traditional and the New Starting Platforms with A Back Plate in International Swimming Championship 50-M and 100-M Freestyle Events. Journal of Sports Science Medicine, 12 (4), 698–706.
  • Honda, K., Sinclair, P., Mason, B., Pease, D. (2012). The effect of starting position on elite swim start performance using an angled kick plate. In: E.J. Bradshaw, A. Burnett, P.A. Hume (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sport (pp. 72–75). Melbourne, Australia.
  • Kibele, A., Biel, K., Fischer, S. (2013). Optimizing individual stance position in the swim start on the OSB11. In: Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (ed.), BISp-Jahrbuch Forschungsförderung 2012/13 (pp. 61–67). Köln: sportverlag strauß.
  • Lyttle, A.D., Benjanuvatra, N. (2005). Start Right? A Biomechanical Review of Dive Start Performance. Retrieved from: http:// coachesinfo.com/category/swimming/321.
  • Ribeiro, J., Morais, S.T., Figueiredo, P., de Jesus, K., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Fernandes, R.J. (2014). Effect of fatigue in spatiotemporal parameters during 100 m front crawl event monitored through 3D dual-media automatic tracking. In: B. Mason (ed.), Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming (pp. 218–222). Canberra: Australian Institute of Sport.
  • Seifert, L., Vantorre, J., Lemaitre, F., Chollet, D., Toussaint, H.M., Vilas-Boas, J.P. (2010). Different profiles of the aerial start phase in front crawl. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 507–516. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c06a0e.
  • Vantorre, J., Seifert, L., Fernandes, R.J., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Chollet, D. (2010). Kinematical profiling of the front crawl start. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 16–21. DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1241208.
  • Vilas-Boas, J.P., Fernandes, R.J. (2003). Swimming starts and turns: determinant factors of swimming performance. In: P. Pelayo, M. Sidney (eds.), Actes des 3èmes Journées Spécialisées de Natation (pp. 84–95). Lille: Université de Lille.
Document Type
article
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Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-9676783f-7237-43dc-9e43-6339096c1c8a
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