Pandemic Influenza Threat
Languages of publication
The threat of a human influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past several years with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza viruses, notably H5N1 viruses, which have infected humans in several Asian and European countries. Previous influenza pandemics have arrived with little or no warning, but the current widespread circulation of H5N1 viruses among avian populations and their potential for increased transmission to humans and other mammalian species may afford us an unprecedented opportunity to prepare for the next pandemic threat. The US Department of Health and Human Services is coordinating a national strategy to respond to an influenza pandemic that involves multiple agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Within NIH, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts basic and clinical research to develop new vaccine technologies and antiviral drugs against influenza viruses. We describe recent research progress in preparing for pandemic influenza.
-  World Health Organization. Confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1). 2005 [cited 2005 Oct 31]. Available from http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/en/
-  World Health Organization. Avian influenza: assessing the pandemic threat. 2005 [cited 2005 Oct 31]. Available from http://www.who. int/csr/disease/influenza/WHO_CDS_2005_29/en/
-  Specter M. Nature’s bioterrorist. New Yorker. 2005 Feb 28. p. 50-61.
-  Webby RJ, Webster RG. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science. 2003; 302: 1519-1522.
-  Monto AS. The threat of and an avian influenza pandemic. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 3 23-5.
-  Stohr K. Avian influenza and pandemics: research needs and opportunities. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 405-7.
-  Institute of Medicine. The threat of pandemic influenza: are we ready? 2004 Nov [cited 2005 Oct 21]. Available from http://www. iom.edu/report.asp?id=23639
-  Couch RB. An overview of serum antibody responses to influenza virus antigens. Dev Biol (Basel). 2003; 115: 25-30.
-  Reid AH, Taubenberger JK, Fanning TG. The 1918 Spanish influenza: integrating history and biology. Microbes Infect. 2003; 3: 81-7.
-  World Organization for Animal Health. Update on avian influenza in animals (type 5). 2005 Oct 28 [cited 2005 Oct 31]. Available from http://www.oie.int/downld/AVIAN%20INFLUENZA/A_AIAsia.htm
-  Food and Agriculture Organization. AIDE News: AI Bulletin. Update on the avian influenza situation (as of 1/9/2005). Issue no. 33. [cited 2005 Oct 31]. Available from http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/subjects/documents/ai/AVIbull033.pdf
-  Chen H, Smith GJ, Zhang SY, Qin K, Wang J, Li KS, et al. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory water fowl. Nature. 2005; 436: 191-2.
-  Liu J, Xiao H, Lei F, Zhu Q, Qin K, Zhang X, et al. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. Science. 2005; 309: 1206.
-  Kuiken T, Rimmelzwaan G, van Riel D, van Amerongen G, Baars M, Fouchier R, et al. Avian influenza in cats. Science. 2004; 306: 241.
-  Keawcharoen J, Oraveerakul K, Kuiken T, Fouchier RA, Amonsin A, Payungporn S, et al. Avian influenza in tigers and leopards. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10: 2189-91.
-  World Health Organization. Avian influenza: H5N1 detected in pigs in China. WHO Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response. 2004 Aug 20 [cited 2005 Oct 21]. Available from http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_08_20/en/
-  Olsen SJ, Ungchusak K, Sovann L, Uyeki TM, Dowell SF, Cox NJ, et al. Family clustering of avian influenza A (H5N1). Emerg Infec Dis. 2005; 11: 1799-1801.
-  Ungchusak K, Auewarakul P, Dowell SF, Kitphati R, Auwanit W, Puthhavathana P, et al. Probable person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 333-40.
-  World Health Organization. Avian influenza: situation updates. 2005 [cited 2005 Oct 21]. Available from http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ avian_influenza/updates/en/
-  Peiris M, Yuen KY, Leung CW, Chan KH, Ip PL, Lai RW, et al. Human infection with influenza H9N2. Lancet. 1999; 354: 916-7.
-  Choi YK, Ozaki H, Webby RJ, Webster RG, Peiris JS, Poon L, et al. Continuing evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in southeastern China. J Virol. 2004; 78: 8609-14.
-  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Avian influenza infection in humans. 2005 Oct 17 [cited 2005 Oct 21]. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm
-  Guo Y, Li J, Cheng X. Discovery of men infected by avian influenza A H9N2 virus. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. PubMed. 1999; 13: 105-8.
-  Fouchier RA, Schneeburger PM, Rozendaal FW, Broekman JM, Kemink SA, Munster V, et al. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004; 101: 1356-61.
-  Koopmans M, Wilbrink B, Conyn M, Natrop G, van der Nat H, Vennema H, et al. Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Lancet. 2004; 363: 587-93.
-  Food and Agriculture Organization. AIDE News: AI Bulletin. Update on the avian influenza situation (as of 12/05/2005). Issue no. 30. [cited 2005 Oct 21]. Available from http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/ subjects/documents/ai/AVIbull030.pdf
-  Fauci AS. Race against time. Nature. 2005; 435: 423-4.
-  National Institutes for Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Focus on the flu. 2005 Jun 21 [cited 2005 Oct 21]. Available from http://www2.niaid.nih.gov/Newsroom/FocusOn/Flu04/#resources
-  Webby RJ, Perez DR, Coleman JS, Guan Y, Knight JH, Govorkova EA, et al. Responsiveness to a pandemic alert: use of reverse genetics for rapid development of influenza vaccines. Lancet. 2004; 363: 1099-103.
-  Clements ML, Betts RF, Murphy BR. Advantage of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A virus over inactivated vaccine for A/Washington/80 (H3N2) wild-type virus infection. Lancet. 1984; 1: 705-8.
-  La Montagne JR, Fauci AS. Intradermal influenza vaccination: can less be more? N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2330-2.
-  Belshe RB, Newman FK, Cannon J, Duane C, Treanor J, van Hoecke C, et al. Serum antibody responses after intradermal vaccination against influenza. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2286-94.
-  Kenney RT, Frech SA, Muenz LR, Villar CP, Glenn GM. Dose sparing with intradermal injection of influenza vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2004; 3 51: 2295-301.
-  Ward P, Small I, Smith J, Suter P, Dutkowski R. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and its potential for use in the event of an influenza pandemic. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005; 55(Suppl 1) :i5-21.
-  National Center for Biotechnology Information. Influenza virus resource. 2005 Jun 23 [cited 2005 Oct 31]. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/FLU/FLU.html
-  Sloan FA, Berman S, Rosenbaum S, Chalk RA, Giffin RB. The fragility of the U.S. vaccine supply. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2443-7.
-  Poland GA, Marcuse EK. Vaccine availability in the US: problems and solutions. Nat Immunol. 2004; 5: 1195-8.
-  Muller MP, McGeer A, Straus SE, Hawryluck L, Gold WL. Clinical trials and novel pathogens: lessons learned from SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10: 389-94.
-  Finlay BB, See RH, Brunham RC. Rapid response research to emerging infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004; 2: 602-7.
-  National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. First US SARS vaccine trial opens at NIH. 2004 Dec 13 [cited 2005 Oct 21]. Available from http://www2.niaid.nih.gov/newsroom/releases/sarstrial.htm
Publication order reference