Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2020 | 30 | 2 | 85-95
Article title

Stability Training and Effectiveness of Playing Basketball

Title variants
Languages of publication
The aim of this study is to review the available literature for factors affecting a basketball throw and the stabilization of the trunk. Searching for the most important elements which ought to be improved during training to increase the effectiveness of a throw and those which condition the correct stabilization of the trunk. The obtained results, after analyzing the literature, show that it is not possible to determine a single factor affecting a throw and the stabilization of the trunk. There are many factors that influence each other and, therefore, must be trained as one. There are biomechanical relationships between the effectiveness of making a throw, the positioning of the limbs, the trunk and the trajectory of the ball. It is important to mention the role of a factor outside biomechanics, such as the player’s psyche. Muscles have the greatest impact on stabilization. Muscle function would not be possible without proper control by the nervous system The conclusion section shows a large number of interacting factors responsible for the quality and effectiveness of the throw as well as for the stabilization of the trunk. This allows better planning and conducting of basketball training aimed at improving technique and throw effectiveness.

Physical description
  • Józef Rusiecki University Collage in Olsztyn, Department of Physiotherapy, Poland,
  • Ahmed, A., Waquas, M., Ijaz, M. (2017). Effectiveness of Core Muscle Stabilization Exercises with and without Lumbar Stretching in Non-Specific Low Back Pain. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 23 (3), 347–351.
  • Alpini, D., Hahn, A., Riva, D. (2008). Static and dynamic postural control adaptations induced by playing ice jockey. Sport Sci Health, 2, 85–92. DOI:
  • Anderson, B., Bliven, K. (2017). The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 26 (5), 452–458. DOI: 10.1123/jsr.2015-0199.
  • Anderson, K., Deluigi, F., Belli, G. (2016). Training for improved neuro-muscular control of balance in middle age females. J. Bodyw Mov Ther, 20 (1), 10–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.01.007.
  • Ball, R. (1989). The basketball jump shot: a kinesiological analysis with recommendations for strength and conditioning programs. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal, 14 (2), 4–12. DOI: 10.1519/0744-0049(1989)011<0004:tbjsak>;2.
  • Barbado, D., Barbado, L., Elvira, J. (2016). Sports-related testing protocols are required to reveal trunk stability adaptations in high-level athletes. Gait & Posture, 49, 90–96. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.027.
  • Barbieri, F., Rodrigues, S., Polastri, P. (2017). High intensity repeated sprints impair postural control, but with no effects on free throwing accuracy, in under-19 basketball players. Human Movement Science, 54, 191–196. DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2017.04.010.
  • Bonato, M., Benis, R., La Torre, A. (2018). Neuromuscular training reduces lower limb injuries in elite female basketball players. A luster randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 28 (4), 1451–1460. DOI: 10.1111/sms.13034.
  • Button, C., Macleod, M., Sanders, R., Coleman, S. (2003). Examining movement variability in the basketball free-throw action at different skill levels. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74 (3), 257–269. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2003.10609090.
  • Cavaggioni, L., Ongaro, L., Zannin, E., Iaia, F.M., Alberti, G. (2015). Effects of different core exercises on respiratory parameters and abdominal strength. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27 (10), 3249–3253. DOI: 10.1589/jpts.27.3249.
  • Cetin, E., Murati, S. (2014). Analysis of jump shot performance among 14–15-year-old male basketball player. Science Direct, 116 (21), 2985–2988. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.693.
  • Chaitow, L. (2013). Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Toronto: Elsevier Canada.
  • Comerford, M., Mottram, S. (2017). Kinetic Control – Ocena i reedukacja niekontrolowanego ruchu. Wrocław: Edra Urban & Partner.
  • Ditroilo, M., O’Sullivan, R., Harnan, B., Crossey, A., Gillmor, B., Dardis, W., Grainger, A. (2018). Water-filled training tubes increase core muscle activation and somatosensory control of balance during squat. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36 (17), 2002–2008. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1431868.
  • Dong, F., Yang, S., Pu, P. (2014). Informatics and Management Science VI, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 209. London: Springer-Verlag.
  • Glofcheskie, G., Brown, S. (2017). Athletic background is related to superior trunk proprioceptive ability, postural control, and neuromuscular responses to sudden perturbations. Human Movement Science, 52 (4), 74–83. DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2017.01.009.
  • Gomez, M.-A., Avugos, S., Onoro, M.-A. (2018) Shaq is Not Alone: Free-Throws in the Final Moments of a Basketball Game. Journal of Human Kinetics, 62 (13), 135–144. DOI: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0165.
  • Gomez, M.-A., Kreivyte, R., Sampalo, J. (2017). Short- and long-term effects of rising shooting straps on free throw accuracy of young female basketball players. Kinesiology, 49 (2), 225–234.
  • Grenier, S.G., McGill, S.M. (2007). Quantification of Lumbar Stability by Using 2 Different Abdominal Activation Strategies. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88 (1), 54–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2006.10.014.
  • Hodges, P., Gandevia, S. (2000). Activation of the human diaphragm during a repetitive postural task. The Journal of Physiology, 522 (1), 165–175. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.t01-1-00165.xm.
  • Huang, Q., Hodges, P., Thorstensson, A. (2001). Postural control of the trunk in response to lateral support surface translation during trunk movements and loading. Exp Brain Res, 141 (4), 552–559. DOI: 10.1007/s00221-001-0896-5.
  • Hung, G., Johnson, B., Coppa, A. (2004). Biomedical Engineering Principles in Sports. New York: Springer Science + Business Media.
  • Huston, R., Grau, C. (2003). Basketball shooting strategies – the free throw, direct shot and layup. Sports Engineering, 6 (1), 49–64. DOI: 10.1007/BF02844160.
  • Jeon, I., Kwon, O., Weon, J., Choug, S., Hwang, U. (2015). Comparison of PSOAS major muscle thickness measured by sonography Turing active straight leg raising in subject with and without uncontrolled lumbopelvic rotation. Manual Therapy, 21 (2), 165–169. DOI: 10.1016/j.math.2015.07.006.
  • Joyce, A., Kotler, D. (2017). Core Training in Low Back Disorders. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 16 (3), 156–161. DOI: 10.1249/JSR.0000000000000365.
  • Kaya, D., Callaghan, M., Donmez, G. (2012). Shoulder joint position sense is negatively correlated with free-throw percentage In Professional basketball players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 20 (3), 189–196. DOI: 10.3233/IES-2012-0458.
  • Kim, Y., Kim, J., Yoon, B. (2015). Intensive unilateral core training improves trunk stability without preferences for trunk left or right rotation. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 28 (1), 191–196. DOI: 10.3233/BMR-140569.
  • Kofotolis, N., Kellis, E., Vlachopoulos, S. (2016). Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 29 (4), 649–659. DOI: 10.3233/BMR-160665.
  • Malone, L., Gervaid, P., Steadward, R. (2002). Shooting mechanics related to players classification and free throw success In wheelchair basketball. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 39 (6), 701–710.
  • Mullineaux, D., Uhl, T. (2010). Coordination-variability and kinematics of misses versus swishes of basketball free throws. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28 (9), 1017–1024. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2010.487872.
  • Muller, J., Muller, S., Stoll, J. (2014). Reproducibility of maximum isokinetic trunk strength testing in health adolescent athletes. Sposts Orthop. Traumatol., 30 (3), 229–237. DOI: 10.1016/j.orthtr.2014.02.007.
  • Nunome, H., Doyo, W., Sakurai, S., Ikegmai, Y., Yabe, K. (2002). A kinematic study of the upper-limb motion of wheelchair basketball shooting in tetraplegic adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 39 (1), 63–71.
  • Oancea, B.M., Ionescu, B.D. (2015). Study on the importance of successful free throws in the game of women’s basketball. Sciences of Human Kinetics, 8 (57), 23–28.
  • Ocak, Y., Savas, S., Isik, O. (2014). The effect of eight-week workout specific to basketball on some physical and physiological parameters. Science Direct, 152 (7), 1288–1292. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.364.
  • Okazaki, V., Rodacki, A., Satern, M. (2015). A review on the basketball jump shot. Sports Biomechanics, 14 (2), 190–205. DOI: 10.1080/14763141.2015.1052541.
  • Paula Lima, P., Camelo, P., Ferreira, V. (2017). Evaluation of the isokinetic muscle function, postural control and plantar pressure distribution in capoeira players: a cross-sectional study. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal, 7 (4), 498–503. DOI: 10.11138/mltj/2017.7.3.498.
  • Peltonen, J., Taimela, S., Erkintalo, M. (1998). Back ex tensor and psoas muscle cross-sectional area, prior physical training, and trunk muscle strength – a longitudinal study in adolescent girls. Eur J Appl Physiol, 77 (1–2), 66–71. DOI: 10.1007/s004210050301.
  • Podmenik, N., Supej, M., Coh, M., Erculj, F. (2017). The effect of shooting range on the Dynamics of limbs angular velocities of the basketball shot. Kinsiology, 49 (1), 92–100.
  • Prieske, O., Muehlbauer, T., Granacher, U. (2016). The role of trunk muscle strength for physical fitness and athletic performance in trained individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med, 46 (3), 401–419. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-015-0426-4.
  • Rodacki, A.L.F., Fowler, N.E., Bennett, S.J. (2002). Vertical jump coordination: fatigue effects. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34 (1), 105–116. DOI: 10.1097/00005768-200201000-00017.
  • Rojas, F.J., Cepero, M., Ona, A., Gutierrez, M. (2000). Kinematic adjustments in the basketball jump shot against an opponent. Ergonomics, 43 (10), 1651–1660. DOI: 10.1080/001401300750004069.
  • Savas, S., Yuksel, M.F., Uzun, A. (2018). The Effects of Rapid Strength and Shooting Training Applied to Professional Basketball Players on the Shot Percentage Level. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6 (7), 1569–1574.
  • Schmidt, A. (2012). Movement pat tern recognition in basketball free-throw shooting. Human Movement Science, 31 (2), 360–382. DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2011.01.003.
  • Sindik, J. (2015). Performance indicators of the top basketball players: relations with several variables. Coll Antropol, 39 (3), 617–624.
  • Su, J., Yang, B. (2018). Analysis of the Characteristics of Thinking Control Turing Basketball Free Throw Based on Electroencephalogram. NeuroQuantology, 16 (5), 303–311. DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.5.1272.
  • Stankovic, R., Simonovic, C., Herodek, K. (2006). Biomechanical analysis of free shooting technique in basketball in relation to precision and position of the players. Salzburg – Austria, XXIV ISBS Symposium.
  • Szafraniec, R., Barańska, J., Kuczyński, M. (2018). Acute effects of core stability exercises on balance control. Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, 20 (3), 145–151.
  • Tang, W.T., Shung, M. (2005). Relationships between isokinetic strength and shooting accuracy AT different shooting ranges In Taiwanese elite high school basketball players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 13 (3), 169–174. DOI: 10.3233/IES-2005-0200.
  • Tran, Ch., Silverberg, L. (2008). Optimal release conditions for the free throw in men’s basketball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26 (11), 1147–1155. DOI: 10.1080/02640410802004948.
  • Vasconcelos, T., Hall, A., Viana, R. (2017). The influence of inspiratory muscle training on lung function in female basketball players – a randomized controlled trial. Porto Biomedical Journal, 2 (3), 86–89.
  • Verhoeven, M., Newell, K.M. (2016). Coordination and control of posture and ball release in basketball free-throw shooting. Human Movement Science, 49, 216–224. DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2016.07.007.
  • Whyte, E., Richter, C., O’Connor, S. (2018). Effects of a dynamic core stability program on the biomechanics of cutting maneuvers: A randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med. Sci Sports, 28 (2), 452–462. DOI: 10.1111/sms.12931.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.