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2017 | 17 | 2 | 76–86
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Rzadkie genetycznie uwarunkowane mikroangiopatie w praktyce lekarza neurologa

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EN
Rare genetically determined microangiopathies in the neurologist practice
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EN
Microangiopathies are progressive genetically determined diseases of the cerebral small blood vessels. Usually, they are generalised vascular diseases, only with the dominance of symptoms of the central nervous system damage. Characteristic symptoms are recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes and a variety of neurological symptoms such as migraines, epilepsy, early cognitive disorders, mental disorders as well as specific changes in neuroimaging and neuropathological findings in young patients. In magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, diffused or focal hyperintensities in the cerebral white matter are visible, and in biopsy specimens characteristic histopathological changes in vessels are observed. The most well-known and common microangiopathy is CADASIL, but the literature devoted to cerebrovascular disorders is rapidly updated with new diseases and syndromes. Thanks to the better accessibility of neuroimaging methods and histopathological assessment of biopsy materials, microangiopathies are increasingly recognised. Early diagnosis of microangiopathies is of great practical importance, as not only does it prevent unnecessary additional tests, but also requires modification of routine treatment.
PL
Mikroangiopatie mózgowe to postępujące, zwykle uwarunkowane genetycznie choroby małych naczyń krwionośnych mózgu. Najczęściej są to uogólnione choroby naczyń, w których dominują objawy uszkodzenia ośrodkowego układu nerwowego. Powodują one występowanie u względnie młodych osób nawracających udarów niedokrwiennych lub krwotocznych oraz różnorodnych objawów neurologicznych, takich jak migrena, padaczka, zaburzenia poznawcze o wczesnym początku czy zaburzenia psychiczne, a także specyficznych zmian w badaniach neuroobrazowych i neuropatologicznych. W badaniu mózgu przy użyciu rezonansu magnetycznego stwierdza się rozlane albo ogniskowe hiperintensywne zmiany w istocie białej, a w materiale biopsyjnym – charakterystyczne zmiany morfologiczne w mikronaczyniach. Najbardziej znaną i najczęstszą chorobą należącą do tej grupy jest mózgowa autosomalna dominująca arteriopatia z  podkorowymi zawałami i leukoencefalopatią – CADASIL, ale piśmiennictwo poświęcone chorobom małych naczyń mózgu szybko wzbogaca się o nowe jednostki i zespoły chorobowe. Dzięki upowszechnieniu się badań neuroobrazowych i biopsyjnych są one bowiem coraz częściej rozpoznawane. Wczesna diagnoza mikroangiopatii ma duże znaczenie praktyczne, ponieważ nie tylko zaoszczędza pacjentowi kolejnych, zbędnych badań dodatkowych, lecz także wymaga modyfikacji rutynowo stosowanego leczenia.
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17
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2
Pages
76–86
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References
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