Stupidity During the Enlightenment
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From before the steam engine to after Napoleon, the history of the enlightenment conformed to and confirmed the definition and model of stupidity as the learned inability to learn: That is a normal, dysfunctional learning process which occurs when a schema formed by linguistic biases and social norms acts via the neurotic paradox to establish a positive feedback system which becomes first self-sustaining and then renders behavior irrelevant to the environment by carrying detached actions to maladaptive excesses. Particular attention is devoted to the American and French revolutions.
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