THE ROLE OF OLIGOCHITOSANS IN AKT KINASE REGULATION
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Among characteristic properties of cancers, there is their increased glycolytic activity.Contrary to normal cells, neoplastic cells use anaerobic glycolysis, even when a sufficient amount of oxygen is available. The intensity of the process is associated with a considerable demand for energy in the form of ATP. Akt, which - acting through the mTOR pathway - activates the HIF-1 factor, which in turn activates hexokinase that participates in glucose phosphorylation, stimulates the transport of glucose to cells via increasing glucose transporters (GLUT) and activates lactate dehydrogenase (which transforms pyruvate to lactate). Chitosan, as well as products of its degradation - oligochitosans - contribute to inhibiting the activity of the Akt kinase, and thus contribute to inhibiting excessive glycolytic activity of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and to decreasing proliferation of these cells.
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