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2017 | 17 | 3 | 195–202
Article title

ADHD u osób dorosłych – rozpoznawanie, przyczyny i skutki

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Title variants
EN
Adult ADHD – diagnosis, causes and outcomes
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PL
Abstracts
PL
Zespół nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej z deficytem uwagi to schorzenie neurobiologiczne, którego objawy ujawniają się w dzieciństwie i często utrzymują się w wieku dorosłym. Obraz kliniczny zaburzenia ulega zmianom na poszczególnych etapach rozwoju: wraz z wiekiem obserwuje się spadek impulsywności i nadruchliwości oraz pogłębienie deficytów uwagi. Pierwotnymi przyczynami zespołu są mutacje genowe, anatomiczne i funkcjonalne anomalie struktur mózgowych oraz związane z nimi charakterystyczne wzorce przetwarzania informacji, specyficzny neurometabolizm, zaburzenia neurorozwojowe, a także oddziaływanie czynników prenatalnych i środowiskowych. Światowe badania potwierdzają, że zespół nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej z deficytem uwagi powoduje długofalowe negatywne skutki. Osoby dotknięte tym zaburzeniem najczęściej wkraczają w dorosłość z bagażem przykrych doświadczeń i zaburzeń współwystępujących, co pociąga za sobą szereg niekorzystnych konsekwencji psychospołecznych. Dorośli cierpiący na zespół nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej z deficytem uwagi napotykają wiele trudności w sferze społecznej, rodzinnej, zawodowej i zdrowotnej. Brak profesjonalnej diagnozy i wiedzy na temat zaburzenia sprawia, że często nie otrzymują adekwatnej, specjalistycznej pomocy. W artykule omówiono czynniki prowadzące do rozwoju zaburzenia i objawy występujące w życiu dorosłym. Wskazano również na znaczące obciążenie, jakie towarzyszy funkcjonowaniu z objawami syndromu w różnych sferach życiowej aktywności. Zwrócono uwagę na potrzebę zwiększenia świadomości społeczeństwa i specjalistów odnośnie do rozpowszechnienia, istoty i konsekwencji występowania zespołu nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej z deficytem uwagi w życiu dorosłym.
EN
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a neurobiological condition, which has its onset in childhood and often persists into adulthood. The clinical picture of the disorder changes at different developmental stages. Hyperactivity and impulsiveness decrease, whereas attention deficits increase with age. Genetic, anatomical and functional anomalies within the cerebral structures and the resulting patterns of information processing, specific neurometabolism, neurodevelopmental disorders as well as the influence of prenatal and environmental factors are the primary causes of the syndrome. Global research confirms that attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder has negative lifetime consequences. People affected by this disorder often enter adulthood burdened with negative experiences and coexisting disorders, which contribute to psychosocial impairment. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder are faced with numerous social, family, professional and health problems. Lack of professional diagnosis and knowledge of the disorder often prevents adequate and professional treatment. The paper discusses different factors that contribute to the development of the disorder as well as the symptoms that occur in adult life. It also points to the significant burden associated with functioning with the symptoms in various spheres of life. The article emphasises the need for increased public and professionals’ awareness of the prevalence, the nature and the consequences of attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder in adulthood.
Keywords
Discipline
Year
Volume
17
Issue
3
Pages
195–202
Physical description
Contributors
  • Klinika Psychiatrii Wieku Podeszłego i Zaburzeń Psychotycznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Łódź, Polska
  • Zakład Psychologii Rozwoju Człowieka, Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet Łódzki, Łódź, Polska
  • Klinika Psychiatrii Wieku Podeszłego i Zaburzeń Psychotycznych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Łódź, Polska
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-8ec6ac29-ceb1-4d16-8090-4055ef00af44
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