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2012 | 39 | 2 | 207-244
Article title

Rola metalotionein i kadmu w rozwoju raka piersi

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EN
Role of metalothioneins and cadmium in breast carcinogenesis
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PL
Abstracts
EN
Metallothionein (MT) was first discovered over 50 years ago, as a cadmiumbinding protein in the kidney of a horse. Metallothioneins are a class of ubiquitously occurring cysteine and metal-rich proteins of low molecular weight, containing sulfur-based metal clusters formed with zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu). In mammals, four distinct MT isoforms designated MT-1 – MT-4 are identified. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include the homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and the protection against oxidative stress and toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd. Cadmium ,which has been classified as class I carcinogen, can stimulate cell proliferation, inhibit DNA repair, impair apoptosis and promote the development of cancer in a number of tissues. Significant quantities of Cd are introduced into the environment both by natural and anthropogenic activities, with anthropogenic activities contributing 3–10 times more Cd to the environment than natural activities. Cadmium accumulates in the human body with a long biological half-life ranging from 10 to 30 years. Cd accumulation and the aberrant expression of MTs have been found to be associated with the development of many types of cancers, including breast cancer.
PL
Metalotioneina (MT) została po raz pierwszy odkryta ponad 50 lat temu, jako białko wiążące kadm w nerce konia. Metalotioneiny są grupą powszechnie występujących białek o niskiej masie cząsteczkowej, wysokiej zawartości reszt cysteiny, których grupy tiolowe wiążą jony takich metali jak kadm (Cd), cynk (Zn) i miedź (Cu). U ssaków wyróżnia się cztery izoformy metalotioneiny oznaczone jak MT-1 – MT-4. Do podstawowych funkcji metalotionein zalicza się utrzymanie homeostazy metali ciężkich, ochronę przed ich toksycznym działaniem, a także ochronę przed stresem oksydacyjnym. Kadm, który został zakwalifikowany do substancji karcynogennych I klasy, może między innymi stymulować proliferację komórek, hamować naprawę uszkodzeń DNA, zaburzać proces apoptozy oraz promować rozwój nowotworów w licznych tkankach. Kadm znajdujący się w środowisku naturalnym pochodzi ze źródeł naturalnych, jak i antropogenicznych, przy czym ilość kadmu dostająca się do środowiska w wyniku działalności człowieka od 3 do 10 razy przekracza ilości kadmu pochodzące ze źródeł naturalnych. Kadm akumuluje się w organizmie człowieka, a jego okres biologicznego półtrwania wynosi od 10 do 30 lat. Zarówno akumulacja Cd, jak i zaburzenia ekspresji metalotionein mogą mieć związek z rozwojem wielu typów nowotworów, w tym raka piersi.
Discipline
Year
Volume
39
Issue
2
Pages
207-244
Physical description
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Document Type
paper
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-8d0c84b9-74dd-4637-b52f-fd08ed76fca9
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