PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2017 | 19 | 3 | 77-84
Article title

Trend of Drug Abuse in 2011– 2014 in Italy

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Doping, although was born as a medication and not with the purpose of enhancing performance, is a widespread practice in all sports, between amateur and gym-goers. The Italian sports federations were in second place worldwide for positive doping-test, after Russia. This review focuses on the analysis of data collected by Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI) in the 2012–2014 period, showing that the most commonly used substances were anabolic androgenic agents, glucocorticoids, diuretics and stimulants. Prevention in doping could be a key to limit the damage caused by this harmful practice both, for the physical health and the athlete’s moral integrity and anti-doping campaigns should be direct as much as possible to young people, since about two-thirds of adolescents appear to be dissatisfied with their body. Even coordination between the various professionals that surround athletes could help fight doping by planning specific training and adapted to the individual athlete, taking into account the actual physical limitations and physical features of each.
Contributors
author
  • Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy
  • Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy
References
  • Bond, P., Llewellyn, W., van Mol, P. (2016). Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity. Medical Hypotheses, 93, 150–153.
  • Börjesson, A., Gårevik, N., Dahl, M.L., Rane, A., Ekström, L. (2016). Recruitment to doping and help-seeking behavior of eight female AAS users. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 11, 11.
  • Brater, D.C. (1998). Diuretic therapy. Review. N Engl J Med, 339, 387–395.
  • Brater, D.C. (2000). Pharmacology of diuretics. Am J Med Sci, 319, 38–50.
  • Buckingham, J.C. (2006). Glucocorticoids: exemplars of multi-tasking. British Journal of Pharmacology, 147, S258–S268.
  • Cadwallader, A.B, de la Torre, X., Tieri, A., Botrè, F. (2010). The abuse of diuretics as performance-enhancing drugs and masking agents in sport doping: pharmacology, toxicology and analysis. British Journal of Pharmacology, 161, 1–16.
  • Cea, L.A., Balboa, E., Puebla, C., Vargas, A., Cisterna, B.A., Escamilla, R. , Regueira, T., Sáez, J.C. (2016). Dexamethasone-induced muscular atrophy is mediated by functional expression of connexin-based hemichannels. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1891–1899.
  • Contrò, V., Bianco, A., Proia, P. (2012). Anabolic-androgenic steroids signaling. Journal of Sport Sciences and Law, V (1), SEZ. 2.
  • Coutinho, A.E., Chapman, K.E. (2011). The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids,recent developments and mechanistic insights. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 335, 2–13.
  • Creado, S., Reardon, C. (2016). The sports psychiatrist and performance-enhancing drugs. International Review of Psychiatry, 28 (6), 564–571.
  • Deventer, K., Roels, K., Delbeke, F.T., van Eenoo, P. (2011). Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports. Anal Bioanal Chem, Aug, 401 (2), 421–432.
  • Ellison, D.H. (1994). Diuretic drugs and the treat ment of edema: from clinic to bench and back again. Review. Am J Kidney Dis, 23, 623–643.
  • Fitch, K. (2016). The World Anti-Doping Code: can you have asthma and still be an elite athlete? Breathe, 12, 148–158.
  • Hackney, A.C., Walz, E.A. (2013). Hormonal adaptation and the stress of exercise training: the role of glucocorticoids. Trends in Sport Sciences, 4 (20), 165–171.
  • Hayashi, R., Wada, H., Ito, K., Adcock, I.M. (2004). Effects of glucocorticoids on gene transcription. European Journal of Pharmacology, 500 (1–3), 51–62.
  • Karin, M. (1998). New Twists in Gene Regulation by Glucocorticoid Receptor: Is DNA Binding Dispensable? Cell, 93, 487–490.
  • Kirby, B. (1989). A Review of the Rational Use of Corticosteroids. The Journal of International Medical Research, 17, 493–505.
  • Kuo, T., Harris, C.A., Wang, J.C. (2013). Metabolic functions of glucocorticoid receptor in skeletal muscle. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 380 (1–2).
  • Matabosch, X., Pozo, O.J., Monfort, N., Pérez-Maná, C., Farré, M., Marcos, J., Segura, J., Ventura, R. (2013). Urinary profile of methylprednisolone and its metabolites after oral and topical administrations. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 138, 214– 221.
  • McNally, J.G., Muller, W.G., Walker, D., Wolford, R., Hager, G.L. (2000). The Glucocorticoid Receptor: Rapid Exchange with Regulatory Sites in Living Cells. Science, 287.
  • Nichols, A.W. (2005). Complications associated with the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of athletic injuries. Clin J Sport Med, 15 (5), 370–375.
  • Nikolopoulos, D.D., Spiliopoulou, C., Theocharis, S.E. (2010). Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, 5, 535–563.
  • Se Won Oh, M.D., Sang Youb Han, M.D. (2015). Loop Diuretics in Clinical Practice. Electrolyte Blood Press, 13, 17–21.
  • Shin, Y.S., Fink, H., Khiroya, R., Ibebunjo, C., Martyn, J. (2000). Prednisolone-induced muscle dysfunction is caused more by atrophy than by altered acetylcholine receptor expression. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 91 (2), 322–328.
  • Thevis, M., Schänzer, W.S. (2005). Examples of Doping Control Analysis by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Ephedrines, β-Receptor Blocking Agents, Diuretics, Sympathomimetics, and Cross-Linked Hemoglobins. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 43, January.
  • Trinh, K.V., Kim, J., Ritsma, A. (2015). Effect of pseudoephedrine in sport: a systematic review. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med, Dec 21, 1 (1 ).
  • Wingert, N., Tavakoli, H., Yoder, E. (2010). Acute hepatitis and personality change in a 31-year-old man taking prohormone supplement. Psychosomatics, 51 (4), 340–344.
  • Wippert, P.M., Fließer, M. (2016). National doping prevention guidelines: Intent, efficacy and lessons learned – A 4-year evaluation. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 11 (1), 35.
  • Yager, Z., O’Dea, J.A. (2014). Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping insport among adolescent boys: implications forprevention programs. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition,11, 13.
  • Yudt, M.R., Cidlowski, J.A. (2002). The Glucocorticoid Receptor: Coding a Diversity of Proteins and Responses through a Single Gene. Molecular Endocrinology, 16 (8), 1719–1726.
Document Type
article
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-86707f01-8c1c-4031-a927-dc6fdc7fdb4a
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.