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2013 | 13 | 2 | 76–82
Article title

Czy słuchowe słowne halucynacje mają zawsze znaczenie kliniczne?

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Title variants
EN
Do auditory verbal hallucinations have always a clinical significance?
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EN
Abstracts
EN
This article presents the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) across the life span in various clinical and nonclinical groups in childhood, adolescence, and adult populations. Data on the occurrence of this phenomenon in the general population vary and usually are in the range of 5–28%. The prevalence of non-clinical AVHs is similar in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. It seems possible that the mechanisms which cause AVHs in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVHs presentations in psychotic illness. In this paper the characteristics of differentiating clinical forms of hallucinations from the non-clinical ones are discussed. These are: the location of sensations, their content, inhibition control disorders, metacognitive disorders, emotional dysregulation, stress level, and their influence on functioning disorders. Considered as etiological factors are abnormal activities of some areas of the brain and abnormal pruning. The triggering factors of both types of perception disorders are traumatic events and psychoactive substances use. Long-term studies have shown that the factors which lead to the transformation of non-clinical hallucinations into their clinical forms are: genetic predisposition, schizotypy, at-risk mental state, and stress. The future research needs to focus on the comparison of underlying factors and mechanisms that lead to the onset of AVHs in both patients and non-clinical populations.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono częstość występowania słuchowych słownych halucynacji (SSH) w ciągu życia w różnych klinicznych i nieklinicznych grupach, w populacjach dzieci, młodzieży oraz osób dorosłych. Dane dotyczące występowania tego zjawiska w populacji ogólnej różnią się i z reguły mieszczą się w przedziale od 5% do 28%. Rozpowszechnienie nieklinicznych postaci SSH jest podobne w okresie dzieciństwa, adolescencji i dorosłości. Wydaje się możliwe, że mechanizmy powodujące powstanie nieklinicznych SSH są różne od tych, które prowadzą do rozwoju postaci klinicznych. Omówiono cechy różnicujące postaci kliniczne halucynacji tego typu od ich form nieklinicznych. Należą do nich: lokalizacja doznań, ich treść, zaburzenia kontroli hamowania, zaburzenia metapoznawcze, dysregulacja emocjonalna, poziom przeżywanego stresu z powodu doznań oraz ich wpływ na zaburzenia codziennego funkcjonowania. Za czynniki etiologiczne uznaje się zaburzenia aktywności określonych obszarów mózgu oraz zaburzony proces czyszczenia synaps. Do czynników spustowych wystąpienia obu postaci zaburzeń spostrzegania zalicza się wydarzenia traumatyczne i używanie substancji psychoaktywnych. Z długoterminowych badań wynika, że czynnikami sprzyjającymi przemianie nieklinicznych SSH w postać kliniczną są przede wszystkim: predyspozycja genetyczna, schizotypia, ryzykowny stan psychiczny oraz wydarzenia stresujące. Przyszłe badania muszą skupić się na porównaniu podstawowych czynników i mechanizmów, które prowadzą do wystąpienia SSH, zarówno w populacjach pacjentów, jak i w populacjach nieklinicznych.
Discipline
Year
Volume
13
Issue
2
Pages
76–82
Physical description
References
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Document Type
article
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-866e5638-f6d6-45ce-8e9b-5101dd2432da
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