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2017 | 7 | 3 | 126-138
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Pneumonia in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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Pneumonia is one of the most frequent cause of death after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The objective of this review is to present various aspects of pneumonia in this group of patients, with focus on invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and cytomegalovirus disease, being the most frequent etiological causes of pneumonia after HSCT. The review is aimed at practical approach to diagnostic and therapeutic management of pneumonia after HSCT with special attention to: definitions of infections and level of diagnosis of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including issues specific for invasive fungal disease, pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, community acquired respiratory viral infections and bacterial pneumonia. Another topics analyzed in the review are: epidemiology and risk factors for development of infection and risk of death due to pneumonia; invasive and non-invasive diagnostics, including imaging and laboratory biomarkers; methods of pharmacological and environmental prophylaxis and specific targeted therapy of pneumonia after HSCT.
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