Synthesis and Physico-chemical Studies of Base Catalyzed Methanolysis of Some Virgin Tropical Seed Oils
Languages of publication
The physico-chemical characterization of Prunus amygdalus, Dacryodes edulis and Chrysophillum albidium seed oils were investigated, together with their methyl esters. The vegetable oils were extracted by applying the solvent extraction method, using n-hexane. Prunus amygdalus had the highest oil yield (60.1%), followed by Dyacrodes edulis (55.76 %) and least from Chrysophillum albidium (13.67%). The oils and their biodiesel were then analyzed for acid value, free fatty acid, specific gravity, ash content, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, kinematic viscosity, flash point, smoke point, titre value, cloud point, moisture content and refractive index. Accordingly, Dyacrodes edulis seed oil had the highest acid value of 6.57 and required two-step transesterifictaion. The produced biodiesels were discussed in the light of ASTM D 9751, ASTMD 6751 and DIN 14214. These showed yields of 94.36%, 93.03% and 86.49%, cetane numbers of 70.40, 55.20 and 64.57 and calorific values of 31,178.39 KJ/kg, 34,421.50 KJ/kg and 32,838.38 KJ/kg for Prunus amygdalus, Dacryodes edulis and Chrysophyllum albidium, respectively. Other fuel-related properties showed highly improved qualities upon transesterification and compared well with ASTM and EU standards. The overall results showed that the seed oils are viable for biodiesel production.
- Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Federal University, Ndufu Alike Ikwo, P.M.B 1010 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria
- Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5025 Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria
- Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, P.M.B 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
-  Adewusi, H.G. and Bada, S.O. (1997). Preliminary information on the Ecology of Chrysophyllum albidium in West and Central Africa in proceedings of a national workshop on the potentials of Star Apple in Nigeria, 16. 25.
-  Agbede, O. O., Alade, A.O., Adebayo, C.A., Salain, K. K and Bakere, T. (2012). Evaluation of chosen fruit seeds oil as potential biofuels. Int. Agro Phys. 26; 199-202.
-  Agunbiade, S.O.; Olanlokun, J.O. (2006). Evaluation of some nutritional characteristics of Indian almond (Prunus amygdalus). Nut. Pakistan J. Nutr, Vol. 5, pp. 316-318.
-  Akubugwo, I. E. and Ugbogu, A. E. (2007). Physico-Chemical Studies on Oils from Five Selected Nigerian Plants Seeds.Pakistan J. Nutri. 6(1), 75-78.
-  Ali, J.E, Rashid, J., Rana, J.E., (2010). The importance of almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) And its bye-products. Food Chemistry, Vol. 120(2); 349-360. Review.
-  AOAC, (1990). Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 13th Edition, Washington D.C.
-  Audu, T. O. K., Aluyor, E. O., Egualeoma, S. and Momoh, S. S. (2013): Extraction and characterization of Chrysophyllum albidium and luffa cylindrical seed oils. Petroleum technology Development Journal 3(1); 1-7.
-  Bull, O. S. and George, D. M. (2015). Assessment of fuel properties of biodiesel obtained from African Pear (Dyacrodes edulis) seeds oil, International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 10, pp. 894-898.
-  Demirbas, A., (2008). Relationship derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels. Fuel 87, 1743-1748.
-  Emmanuel, I. M. and Francis, O. A. (2010). Comparative Evaluation of different Organic fertilizers on the soil fertility Improvement, Leaf Mineral Compositions and growth performance of African cherry nut (Chrysophyllum albidium L.) seedlings. Journal of American Science, 6(8), 217-9.
-  Fan, X (2008). Optimization of biodiesel production from crude cotton seed oil and waste vegetable oil; conventional and ultrasonic irradiation methods . Ph.D thesis, Department of food technology, Clemson University.
-  Felizardo, P.; Correia, M. J., Raposo, I.; Mendes, J. F.; Berkemeier, R., Bordado, J. M., (2006). Production of biodiesel from waste frying oils., Waste Manage., 26 (5), 487-494.
-  Giwa, S. and Ogunbona, C. (2014): Sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus) “dulcis”) seeds as a potential feedstock for Nigerian Biodiesel Automotive Project. Rev. Ambient Aqua 9(1), (2014).
-  Jayeoba, O. J., Ige, M. M., Omolaiye, J. A., Gbadamosi, S. O., Ogunbanjo, R.O. and Abiola, I. O. (2007). Chemical composition and physical properties of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidium), ASSET 7(1):37-42.
-  Musa, U., Isa, A.G., Mohammed, J.A., Mohammed U. G., Usman, Z and Alharsan, B. (2015). Extraction of Chrysophyllum albidium seed oil, optimization and characterization, Chemical and Process Engineering Research. Vol. 30 pp1-8.
-  Nzikou, J. M., Kimbongiula, A., Matos, L., Loumouamou B., Pambou-Tobi N.P.G., Ndangui, C.B., Abena A.A. Siluo Th., Scher J and Desobry S. (2009). Extraction and characterization of seed kernel oil from mango (Magnifera Indica). Research Journal of Environments and Earth Science, 2(1); 31-35.
-  Oboh, I. O., Aluyor, E. O. and Audu, T. O. K (2009). Use of Chrysophyllum albidium for the removal of metal irons from aqueous solution, Scientific Research and Essay, Vol. 4(6) 632-635.
-  Ochigbo, S. S and Paiko, Y. B (2011). Effects of solvent Blending on the characteristics of oils extracted from the seeds of Chrysophyllum albidium, I. J. S. N Vol. 2 (2): 352-358.
-  Ofoefule, A.U., Ibeto, C.N., Okoro, U.C and Onukwuli, O. D., (2013). Biodiesel production from tigernut (Cyprus esculentus) oil and characterization of its blend with petrodiesel, Physical Review and Research International 3(2), 145-153
-  Ogunsuyi, H. O (2015). Production of biodiesel using African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oil as feedstock, Academia Journal of Biotechnology 3(5), 085-092.
-  Olufumilola, A., Abiodun, A. S. Oladapo, (2011). Physico-chemical properties of African Star Apple (Chrysophylum albidum) components, Nutrition and food Science, Vol. 41, Issue 1, pp. 8-11.
-  Patel, V. (1999). Cetane Number of New Zealand diesel, Report, office of Chief Gas Engineer, Energy Inspection Group, Ministry of Commerce Press. Wellington, New Zealand.
-  Sam, S. M., Akonye, L. A., Mensah, S. I., and Esenowo, G. J., (2008). Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of Persea Americana Miller and Chysophyllum albidium G. Don. Scientia Africans, Vol. 7 (2), pp. 35-38.
-  Sivaramakrishnam, K. and Ravikumar, P. (2012). Determination of Cetane Number of Biodiesel and its influence on Physical Properties, ARFN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Vol. 7, No. 2, 205-211
-  Shirka K. and Rita C. Y. (2012). Review Article on Biodiesel Production from Nonedible Oils: A review, J. Chem. Pharm. Resi. Vol. 4, No 9, pp. 4219-4230.
-  Srivastava, A. and Prasad, R. (2000). Triglycerides based diesel fuels, Renewable Sustain. Energy Rev. 4, 111-33.
-  Ureigho, U. N. and Ekeke, B. A. (2010). Nutrient values of Chrysophyllum Albidium Linn (African Star Apple) as a domestic Income Plantation Species, African Research Review 4(2), 50-56.
Publication order reference