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2012 | 10 | 4 | 286-295
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Zastosowanie sródoperacyjnej radioterapii u chorych na wczesnego raka piersi – ocena efektywnosci i toksycznosci leczenia

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Intraoperative radiotherapy in early breast cancer: effectiveness and toxicity assessment
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Introduction: Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) with adjuvant radiotherapy in the management of patients with breast cancer is an effective alternative for mastectomy. A standard adjunct to BCT is irradiation of the entire breast for 5-7 weeks. Aim of paper: Evaluation of treatment effectiveness, analysis of early and delayed radiation- induced reactions, cosmetic effect and quality of life. Material and methods: Analysis encompassed 150 patients undergoing BCT, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed up for at least one year. Follow-up examination 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after completion of treat- ment included: physical examination, breast photography, analysis of early and delayed post-radiation reactions. Nuclear magnetic resonance mammography and sonography of the breasts was obtained after 6 months of observation. Results: No cases of local recurrence have been noticed. Acute radiation-induced reaction of the skin (grade 1 and 2) developed in 21.2% patients. No cases of grade 3 and 4 reactions have been noticed. Very good and good cosmetic effect was obtained in 81.5% of the patients. Breast pain has been reported by 20.6% of the patients, and skin hyperesthesia – by 17% of them. Breast edema was seen in 81.3% of the patients 1 month, in 63.4% 6 months, in 54.9% 12 months and in 56% 2 years after completion of radiotherapy. Altered skin pigmen- tation was noticed in 67.8% of the patients 1 month, in 44.1% 6 months, in 37.8% 1 year and in 31% 2 years after completion of radiotherapy. Conclusion: No cases of local recurrence or severe (high-grade) radiation-induced reactions were noticed during follow-up. Intraoperative radiotherapy reduced duration of treatment by one week, enabling inclusion the entire planning target volume (PTV) by a homogenous radiation dose and reduced the risk of geographic error.
Wstęp: Oszczędzające leczenie chorych na raka piersi (breast-conserving therapy, BCT) z uzupełniającą radiotera- pią stworzyło skuteczną alternatywę dla mastektomii. Standardowym postępowaniem po BCT jest napromienianie całego gruczołu piersiowego przez 5-7 tygodni. Cel pracy: Ocena skuteczności leczenia, analiza wczesnych i póź- nych odczynów popromiennych, efektu kosmetycznego oraz jakości życia. Materiał i metody: Przeanalizowano 150 pacjentek po BCT, śródoperacyjnej radioterapii (intraoperative radiation therapy, IORT) oraz napromienianiu z pól zewnętrznych (external beam radiotherapy, EBRT) z minimalnym okresem obserwacji 1 roku. Obserwacja w 1., 6., 12., 24. miesiącu od zakończenia leczenia obejmowała: badanie kliniczne, zdjęcie gruczołów piersiowych, analizę odczynów wczesnych i późnych. Po 6 miesiącach wykonano MMR i USG gruczołów piersiowych. Wyniki: Nie stwierdzono wznowy miejscowej. Ostra reakcja popromienna (w stopniach 1. i 2.) w obrębie skóry wystąpiła u 21,2% chorych (brak odczynów w stopniach 3. i 4.), bardzo dobry i dobry efekt kosmetyczny leczenia odnoto- wano u 81,5% badanych. Ból w obrębie gruczołu piersiowego zgłaszało 20,6%, a zwiększoną wrażliwość skóry – 17% pacjentek. Obrzęk gruczołu piersiowego stwierdzono u 81,3% chorych po 1 miesiącu, 63,4% po 6 miesiącach, 54,9% po 12 miesiącach i u 56% po 2 latach od zakończenia radioterapii. Zmianę zabarwienia skóry odnotowano u 67,8% chorych po 1 miesiącu, 44,1% po 6 miesiącach, 37,8% po 12 miesiącach i u 31% po 2 latach od zakończe- nia teleradioterapii. Omówienie: W trakcie obserwacji chorych nie stwierdzono wznowy miejscowej oraz odczynów w stopniu ciężkim. Śródoperacyjna radioterapia skróciła czas leczenia o tydzień, umożliwiła objęcie jednorodną dawką PTV i zmniejszyła ryzyko błędu geograficznego.
Physical description
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