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Fluoride and environment

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The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits and related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Fluoride in drinking water is known for having both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Many solutions to these problems were also suggested. Fluoride from water or wastewater can be removed by an ion exchange/adsorption process or by a coagulation, precipitation process. The ion exchange/adsorption can be applied to either concentrated or diluted solutions and they are capable of achieving complete removal under proper conditions. The method suitable for a given situation needs to be judiciously selected considering the various aspects. The paper presents the current information on fluoride in environment and its effects on human health, as well as available methods of defluoridation in detail.
  • Faculty of Chemistry, University of Shahrood, P.O. Box 36155-316, Shahrood, Iran
  • Faculty of Chemistry, University of Shahrood, P.O. Box 36155-316, Shahrood, Iran
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