Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2017 | 64 | 17-33
Article title

Functional foods and nutraceuticals, wonders in cancer risks - a review

Title variants
Languages of publication
Cancer is a major cause of death in the world. Common cancers include prostate cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, and skin cancers. Treatment of cancer is very expensive hence the need to prevent the condition primarily, or even secondarily. Foods, like chemicals, have cumulative effects and contain substances both essential and non-essential which have been shown to be healthy. This led to acclamation and acceptance of certain foods as providing health benefits – functional foods. Functional foods and nutraceuticals are chemopreventive to cancers as evidenced by different researches conducted over the years. This does not conclude that functional foods and nutraceuticals have an all-preventive effect because some research findings implicate them in cancer risks and progression. This review aims to discuss some of these foods and the chemoprotective compounds therein to aid further clinical studies. Foods investigated for their role in cancer risks and included in this review are: grapes, tomatoes, red peppers, berries, chestnut, ginseng, Rhodiola, green tea, soy, garlic, and cruciferous vegetables. This review also considered the so-called antioxidant nutrients – selenium, vitamins A, B, C, D and E. Others include glucosamine, chondroitin, melatonin, MSM, which were taken as supplements. Anyway researches are still on-going relating cancers and foods as this list is supposedly not exhaustive.
Physical description
  • Department of Nursing, All Nations University College, P.O. Box KF 1908 Koforidua, Ghana
  • [1] World Health Organization (2008). The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. World Health Organization, Geneva. (Accessed April 12, 2013)
  • [2] Ferlay J, Shin H.R, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C.D, Parkin D. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; Year. Available at: (Accessed April 12, 2013)
  • [3] Heidemann C., Schulze M.B., Franco O.H., van Dam R.M., Mantzoros C.S., Hu F.B. (2008). Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of women. Circulation 118:230–237
  • [4] World Health Organization (2008). 2008-2013 Action plan for the global strategy for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. (Accessed April 12, 2013)
  • [5] Ruhul Amin, A.R.M., Kucuk O., Khuri F.R, Shin D.M. (2009) Perspectives for cancer prevention with natural compounds. J Clin Oncol, 27:2712-2725
  • [6] Asgari M.M., Chren M., Warton E.M., Friedman G.D., White E. (2011). supplement use and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol, 65(6): 1145-1151
  • [7] Maddi V.S., Aragade P.D., Digge V.G., Nitaliker M.N. (2007). Importance of Nutraceuticals in Health Management. Phcog Rev, 1: 377-379
  • [8] Trottier G., Bostrom P.J., Lawrentschuk N., Fleshner N.E. (2010). Nutraceuticals and prostate cancer prevention: a current review. Nat Rev Uro, 7: 21-30
  • [9] Balsano C., Alisi A. (2009). Antioxidant effects of natural bioactive compounds. Curr. Pharm, 15: 3063-3073
  • [10] Özten-Kandaş N., Bosland M.C. (2011). Chemoprevention of prostate cancer: natural compounds, antiandrogens, and antioxidants – in vivo evidence. J Carcinog, 10: 27.
  • [11] Pandey M., Verma R.K., Saraf S.A. (2010). Nutraceuticals: new era of medicine and health. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 3: 11-15
  • [12] Finkel T., Holbrook N.J. (2000). Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature, 408(6809): 239-247
  • [13] Halliwell B. (1994). Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause, or consequence? Lancet, 344(8924): 721-724
  • [14] Coyle C.H., Philips B.J., Morrisroe S.N., Chancellor M.B., Yoshimura N. (2008). Antioxidant effects of green tea and its polyphenols on bladder cells. Life Sci, 83(1-2): 12-18
  • [15] Adams L.S., Phung S., Yee N., Seeram N.P., Li L., Chen S. (2010). Blueberry phytochemicals inhibit growth and metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Cancer Res, 70(9): 3594-3605
  • [16] Lee S.H., Kim E.J., Kim S.H. (2011). Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells. Nutr Res Pract, 5(3): 185-191
  • [17] Vekiari S.A., Gordon M.H., García-Macías P., Labrinea H. (2008). Extraction and determination of ellagic acid content in chestnut bark and fruit. Food Chem, 110: 1007-1011
  • [18] Barreira J.C.M., Ferreira I.C.F.R., Oliveira M.B.P.P., Pereira J.A. (2008). Antioxidant activities of the extracts from chestnut flower, leaf, skins and fruit. Food Chem, 107: 1106-1113
  • [19] Huang W., Zhang H, Liu W, Li C. (2012). Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol), 13(2): 94-102
  • [20] Oszmiański J., Wojdyło A. (2009). Comparative study of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strawberry puree, clear, and cloudy juices. Eur Food Res Technol, 228(4): 623-631.
  • [21] Tulipani S., Mezzetti B., Capocasa F., Bompadre S., Beekwilder J., de Vos C.H.R., Capanoglu E., Bovy A., Battino M. (2008). Antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and nutritional quality of different strawberry genotypes. J Agric Food Chem, 56(3): 696-704
  • [22] Wang S.W., Millner P. (2009). Effect of different cultural systems on antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, and fruit quality of strawberries (Fragaria x aranassa Duch.). J Agric Food Chem, 57(20): 9651-9657
  • [23] Hannum S.M. (2004). Potential impact of strawberries on human health: a review of the science. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 44(1): 1-17
  • [24] Seeram N.P. (2008). Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease. J Agric Food Chem, 56: 627-9
  • [25] Li J., Zhang D., Stoner G.D., Huang C. (2008). Differential effects of black raspberry and strawberry extracts on BaPDE-induced activation of transcription factors and their target genes. Mol Carcinogenesis, 47: 286-294
  • [26] Guha N., Kwan M.L., Quesenberry Jr C.P., Weltzien E.K., Castillo A.L., Caan B.J. (2009). Soy isoflavones and risk of cancer recurrence in a cohort of breast cancer survivors: Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 118(2): 395-405
  • [27] Shu X.O., Zheng Y., Cai H., Gu K., Chen Z., Zheng W., et al. (2009). Soy food intake and breast cancer survival. JAMA. 302(22): 2437-2443
  • [28] Wu A.H., Koh W.P., Wang R., Lee H.P., Yu M.C. (2008). Soy intake and breast cancer risk in singapore chinese health study. Br J Cancer, 99: 196-200
  • [29] Khan S.A., Chatterton R.T., Michel N., Bryk M., Lee O., Ivancic D. et al. (2012). Soy isoflavone supplementation for breast cancer risk reduction: A Randomized Phase II Trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 5(2): 309-319
  • [30] Messina M., Hilakivi-Clarke L. (2009). Early intake appears to be the key to the proposed protective effects of soy intake against breast cancer. Nutr Cancer, 61(6):792-798
  • [31] Lee S., Shu X., Li H., Yang G., Cai H., Wen W., Ji B., Gao J., Gao Y., Zheng W. (2009). Adolescent and adult soy food intake and breast cancer risk: Results from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 89: 1920-6
  • [32] Wu A.H., Koh W., Wang R., Lee H., Yu M.C. (2008). Soy Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in Singapore Chinese Health Study. British Journal of Cancer, 99: 196-200
  • [33] Yang G., Shu X.O., Li H., Chow W.H., Cai H., Zhang X., Gao Y.T., Zheng W. (2009). Prospective cohort study of soy food intake and colorectal cancer risk in women. Am J Clin Nutr, 89: 577-583
  • [34] Tsai C., Chen Y., Chien Y., Huang W., Lin S. (2010). Effect of soy saponin on the growth of human colon cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol, 16(27): 3371-3376
  • [35] Yang G., Shu X., Li H., Chow W., Cai H., Zhang X., Gao Y., Zheng W. (2009). Prospective Cohort Study of Soy Food Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Women. Am J Clin Nutr, 89: 577-83
  • [36] Hwang C.S., Kwak H.S., Lim H.J., et al. (2006). Isoflavone metabolites and their in vitro dual functions: they can act as an estrogenic agonist or antagonist depending on the estrogen concentration. J Steroid BiochemMol Biol, 101: 246-253
  • [37] Ollberding N.J., Lim U., Wilkens L.R., Wendy Setiawan V., Shvetsov Y.B., Henderson B.E., Kolonel L.N., Goodman M.T. (2012). Legume, soy, tofu, and isoflavone intake and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 104: 67-76
  • [38] Singh S.V., Powolny A.A., Stan S.D., Xiao D., Arlotti J.A., Warin R., Hahm E., Marynowski S.W., Bommareddy A., Potter D.M., Dhir R. (2008). Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide prevents development of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer and pulmonary metastasis multiplicity in TRAMP mice. Cancer Res, 68(22): 9503-9511
  • [39] Stan S.D., Singh S.V. (2009). Transcriptional Repression and Inhibition of Nuclear Translocation of Androgen Receptor by Diallyl Trisulfide in Human Prostate Cancer Cells. Clin Cancer Res, 15(15): 4895-4903
  • [40] Zhang C., Zeng T., Zhao X., Yu L., Zhu Z., Xie K. (2012). Protective effects of garlic oil on hepatocarcinoma induced by N-Nitrosodiethylamine in rats. Int J Biol Sci, 8(3): 363-374
  • [41] Park D.H., Shin J.W., Park S.K., et al. (2009). Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induces irreversible hepatocellular carcinogenesis through overexpression of G1/S-phase regulatory proteins in rat. Toxi-col Lett, 191: 321-326
  • [42] Walter R.B., Brasky T.M., Milano F., White E. (2011). Vitamin, mineral, and specialty supplements and risk of hematologic malignancies in the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20(10): 2298-2308
  • [43] Satia J.A., Littman A., Slatore C.G., Galanko J.A., White E. (2009). Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 18(5): 1419-1428
  • [44] Gupta S., Hastak K., Ahmad N., Lewin J.S., Mukhtar H. (2008). Inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice by oral infusion of green tea polyphenols. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 98: 10350-10355
  • [45] Zhang M., Huang J., Xing X., Holman C.D. (2009). Dietary intake of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in chinese women. Int J Cancer, 124: 1404-1408
  • [46] Shrubsole M. J., Lu W., Chen Z. et al. (2009). Drinking green tea modestly reduces breast cancer risk. J Nutr, 139(2): 310-316
  • [47] Iwasaki M., Inoue M., Sasazuki S., Miura T. et al. (2010). Plasma tea polyphenol levels and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Japanese women: A Nested Case-Control Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 124(3): 827-34
  • [48] Sasazuki S., Inoue M., Miura T., Iwasaki M., Tsugane S. (2008). Plasma tea polyphenols and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study nested in a large population-based prospective study in Japan. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17: 343
  • [49] Katiyar S.K. (2008). Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system. Mol Nutr Food Res, 52(1): S71-S76
  • [50] Akhtar,S., Meeran, S.M., Katiyar, N., and Katiyar, S.K. (2009). Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts by targeting insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenic factors. Clin Cancer Res, 15(3): 821
  • [51] Brasky T.M., Kristal A.R., Navarro S.L., Lampe J.W., Patterson R.E., Peters U., White E. (2011). Specialty supplements and prostate cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort. Nutr Cancer, 63(4): 573-582
  • [52] Satia J.A., Littman A., Slatore C.G., Galanko J.A., White E. (2009). Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarker Prev, 18: 1419-1428
  • [53] Wang C.Z., Xie J.T., Zhang B., Ni M., Fishbein A., Aung H.H., Mehendale S.R., Du W., He T.C., Yuan C.S. (2007). Chemopreventive effects of Panax notoginseng and its major constituents on SW480 human colorectal cancer cells. Int J Oncol, 31: 1149-1156
  • [54] King M.L., Murphy L.L. (2010). Role of cyclin inhibitor protein p21 in the inhibition of HCT116 human colon cancer cell proliferation by American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and its Constituents. Phytomedicine, 17(3-4): 261
  • [55] Jin Y., Kotakadi V.S., Ying L., Hofseth A.B., Cui S., Wood P.A., Windust A., Matesic L.E., Pena E.A., Chiuzan C., Singh N.P., Nagarkatti M., Nagarkatti P.S., Wargovich M.J., Hofseth L.J. (2008). American ginseng suppresses inflammation and DNA damage associated with mouse colitis. Carcinogenesis, 29: 2351-2359
  • [56] Xie J., Du G., McEntee E., Aung H.H., He H., Mehendale S.R., Wang C., Yuan C. (2011). Effects of triterpenoid glycosides from fresh ginseng berry on SW480 human colorectal cancer cell line. Cancer Res Treat, 43(1): 49-55
  • [57] Poudyal D., Le P.M., Davis T., Hofseth A.B., Chumanevich A., Chumanevich A.A., Wargovich M.J., Nagarkatti M., Nagarkatti P.S., Windust A., and Hofseth L.J. (2012). A hexane fraction of american ginseng suppresses mouse colitis and associated colon cancer: anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic mechanisms. Cancer Prev Res, 5(4): 685-696
  • [58] He N.W., Zhao Y., Guo L., Shang J., Yang X.B. (2012). Antioxidant, antiproliferative, and pro-apoptotic activities of a saponin extract derived from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen. J Med Food, 15 (4): 350-359
  • [59] Wang C., Du G., Zhang Z., Wen X., Calway T., Zhen Z., Musch M.W., Bissonnette M., Chang E.B., Yuan C. (2012). Ginsenoside compound K, not Rb1, possesses potential chemopreventive activities in human colorectal cancer. Int J Oncol, 40(6): 1970-1976
  • [60] Wang W., Zhang X., Qin J., Voruganti S., Nag S.A., Wang M., Wang H., Zhang R. (2012). Natural product ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis through down-regulating MDM2. PLoS ONE, 7(7): e41586
  • [61] Aung H.H., Mehendale S.R., Wang C.Z., Xie J., McEntee E. (2007). Cisplatin's tumoricidal effect on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells was not attenuated by American ginseng. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 59(3): 369-374
  • [62] Wang C., Aung H.H., Zhang B., Sun S., Li X., He H., Xie J., He T., Du W., Yuan C. (2008). chemopreventive effects of heat-processed Panax quinquefolius root on human breast cancer cells. Anticancer Res, 28(5A): 2545-2551
  • [63] Thoppil R.J., Bishayee A. (2011). Terpenoids as potential chemopreventive and therapeutic agents in liver cancer. World J Hepatol, 3(9): 228-249
  • [64] Jiang J, Chen X, Chen X, Zheng S. (2011). Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth via intrinsic apoptotic pathway. World J Gastroenterol, 17(31): 3605-3613
  • [65] Chen Y., Xu Y., Zhu Y., Li X. (2013). Anti-Cancer Effects of ginsenoside compound k on pediatric acute myeloid leukemia cells. Cancer Cell Int, 13: 24
  • [66] Liu Z., Li X., Simoneau A.R., Jafari M., Zi X. (2012). Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside decrease the growth of bladder cancer cell lines via inhibition of the mTOR pathway and induction of autophagy. Mol Carcinog, 51(3): 257-267
  • [67] Tu Y., Roberts L., Shetty K., Schneider S.S. (2008). Rhodiola crenulata induces death and inhibits growth of breast cancer cell lines. J Med Food, 11: 413-23
  • [68] Moselhy S.S., Al Mslmani M.A. (2008). Chemopreventive effect of lycopene alone or with melatonin against the genesis of oxidative stress and mammary tumors induced by 7,12 dimethyl(a)benzanthracene in Sprague Dawely female rats. Mol Cell Biochem, 319: 175-180
  • [69] Atawodi S.E. (2011). Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols. Infect agent cancer, 6(2): S9
  • [70] Mein J.R., Lian F., Wang X.D. (2008). Biological activity of lycopene metabolites: implication for cancer prevention. Nutr Rev, 66: 667-683
  • [71] Wang Y., Ausman L.M., Greenberg A.S., Russell R.M., Wang X. (2010). Dietary lycopene and tomato extract supplementations inhibit Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-promoted Hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Int J Cancer, 126(8): 1788–1796
  • [72] Boileau T.W., Liao Z., Kim S., Lemeshow S., Erdman J.W. Jr., Clinton S.K. (2003). Prostate carcinogenesis in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU)-testosterone-treated rats fed tomato powder, lycopene, or energy restricted diets. J Natl Cancer Inst, 95: 1578-1586
  • [73] Shin D., Kim O., Jun H., Kang M. (2008). Inhibitory effect of capsaicin on B16-F10 melanoma cell migration via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/Rac1 signal pathway. Experimental and mol Med, 40(5): 486-494
  • [74] Báez S., Tsuchiya Y., Calvo A., Pruyas M., Nakamura K., Kiyohara C., Oyama M., Yamamoto M. (2010). Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation and capsaicin metabolism, and the risk of gallbladder cancer in Chilean women. World J Gastroenterol, 16(3): 372-378
  • [75] Sarriá B., Martínez-López S., Fernández-Espinosa A., Gómez-Juaristi M., Goya L., Mateos R., Bravo L. (2012). Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention. Nutrition & Metabolism, 9: 33
  • [76] Andersen V., Egeberg R., Tjønneland A., Vogel U. (2012). Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study. BMC Cancer, 12: 183
  • [77] Mattisson I., Wirfa E., Johansson U., Gullberg B., Olsson H., Berglund G. (2004). Intakes of plant foods, fibre and fat and risk of breast cancer – a prospective study in the Malmo¨ Diet and Cancer cohort. British Journal of Cancer, 90: 122-127
  • [78] McCormick D.L., Rao K.V.N., Johnson W.D., Bosland M.C., Lubet R.A., Steele V.E. (2010). Null activity of selenium and vitamin E as cancer chemopreventive agents in the rat prostate. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 3(3): 381-392
  • [79] Tang L., Zirpoli G.R., Jayaprakash V. et al. (2010). Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study. BMC Cancer, 10: 162
  • [80] Tang L., Zirpoli G.R., Guru K., Moysich K.B., Zhang Y., Ambrosone C.B., McCann S.E. (2008). Consumption of raw cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17(4): 938-944
  • [81] Carpentera C.L., Yu M.C., London S.J. (2009). Dietary isothiocyanates, Glutathione S-Transferase M1 (GSTM1), and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Caucasians from Los Angeles County, California. Nutr Cancer, 61(4): 492-499
  • [82] Mondu A.M., Weinstein S.J., Männistö S., Snyder K., et al. (2010). Serum Vitamin D and Risk of Bladder Cancer. Cancer Res, 70(22): 9218-9223
  • [83] Abbas S., Linseisen J., Slanger T., Kropp S., Mutschelknauss E.J., Flesch-Janys D., Chang-Claude J. (2008). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of post-menopausal breast cancer-results of a large case-control study. Carcinogenesis, 29: 93-9
  • [84] Abbas S., Chang-Claude J., Linseisen J. (2009). Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Premenopausal Breast Cancer risk in a German case-control study. Int J Cancer, 124(1): 250-5
  • [85] Pan S.Y., Zhou J., Gibbons L., Morrison H., and Wen S.W. (2011). Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population based case-control study in Canada. BMC Cancer, 11: 372
  • [86] Tang J.Y, Fu T., LeBlanc E., Manson J.E., Feldman D., Linos E., Vitolin M.Z., Zeitouni N.C., Larson J., Stefanick M.L. (2011). Calcium Plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Nonmelanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer: Post Hoc Analyses of the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Oncol, 29: 3078-3084
  • [87] Asgari M.M., Maruti S.S., Kushi L.H., White E. (2009). Antioxidant supplementation and risk of incident melanomas: results from a large prospective cohort study. Arch Dermatol, 145(8): 879-882
  • [88] Hotaling J.M., Wright J.L., Pocobelli G., Bhatti P., Porter M.P., White E. (2011). Long-term use of supplemental vitamins and minerals does not reduce the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study. J Urol, 185(4): 1210-1215
  • [89] Wright M.E., Peters U., Gunter M.J., et al. (2009). Association of variants in two vitamin E transport genes with circulating vitamin E concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Res, 69(4): 1429-1438
  • [90] Vidal A.C., Grant D.J., Williams C.D., et al. (2012). Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans. J Cancer Epidemiol. doi:10.1155/2012/957467
  • [91] Peters U., Foster C.B., Chatterjee N., Schatzkin A., et al. (2007). Serum selenium and risk of prostate cancer—a nested case control study. Am J Clin Nutr, 85(1): 209-217
  • [92] Williams C.D., Satia J.A., Adair L.S., Stevens J. et al. (2010). Antioxidant and DNA methylation-related nutrients and risk of distal colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control, 21(8): 1171-1181
  • [93] Gifkins D., Olson S.H., Paddock L., King M., Demissie K., Lu S., Kong A.T., Rodriguez-Rodriguez L., Bandera E.V. (2012). Total and individual antioxidant intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. BMC Cancer, 12: 211
  • [94] Moncayo R., Kroiss A., Oberwinkler M., Karakolcu F., Starzinger M., Kapelari K., Talasz H., Moncayo H. (2008). The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma. BMC Endocrine Disorders 8: 2
  • [95] Hirvonen T., Kontto J., Jestoi M., Valsta L., Peltonen K., Pietinen P., Virtanen S.M., Sinkko H., Kronberg-Kippilä C., Albanes D., Virtamo J. (2010). Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among Finnish male smokers. Cancer Causes Control, 21(12): 2223-2229
  • [96] Hirvonen T., Kontto J., Jestoi M., Valsta, L., Peltonen, K., Pietinen, P., Virtanen, S.M., Sinkko, H., Kronberg-Kippilä, C., Albanes, D., Virtamo, J. (2010). Dietary Acrylamide Intake and the Risk of Cancer Among Finnish Male Smokers. Cancer Causes Control, 21(12): 2223-2229
  • [97] Neuhouser M.L., Barnett M.J., Kristal A.R, Ambrosone C.B., King I.B., Thornquist M., Goodman G.G. (2009). Dietary supplement use and prostate cancer risk in the carotene and retinol efficacy trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 18(8): 2202-2206
  • [98] Cole B.F., Baron J.A., Sandler R.S., Haile R.W., Ahnen D.J., Bresalier R.S. et al., (2007). Polyp Prevention Study Group. Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 297(21): 2351-2359
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.