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2018 | 93 | 129-138
Article title

Innovations in lung cancer treatment

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Abstracts
EN
Lung cancer is associated with one of the highest mortality rates among malignant tumors. It is the main death cause of men and women in Poland where over 15 000 men and 7 000 women die with this diagnosis annually. 1.7 million people die every year due to lung cancer in the world. Two main types of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The history of lung cancer treatment begins with surgical approach followed by addition of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which were used either separately or in combination depending on the stage of the lung cancer. Many somatic mutations were identified and molecularly targeted therapies could have been established. One of the oldest and the best known group of molecularly targeted drugs used in lung cancer treatment are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). First EGFR-TKI was gefitinib, which has been examined in clinical trials before erlotinib, afatinib, dacomitinib and osimertinib. EGFR-TKIs increased overall survival (OS) with significantly less side effects when compared to standard chemotherapy. Another group of molecularly targeted drugs are anaplastic lymphoma (ALK) kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib, alectinib and ceritinib. Another innovation which was introduced in NSCLC treatment was immunotherapy. Its effect is based on modification of immune system leading to activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Currently nivolumab and pembrolizumab (anti-PD1 antibodies) as well as atezoliumab (anti-PD-L1 antibody) are being used in NSCLC patients. The discovery of innovative therapies for NSCLC patients resulted in significant extension of patients' life expectancy while minimizing the side effects of such therapy. Moreover, the quality of patients’ life was significantly improved. However, important problems still remain to be solved: overcoming the resistance in the course of molecularly targeted therapies and the lack of predictive factors that determine the effectiveness of immunotherapy.
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Year
Volume
93
Pages
129-138
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Contributors
author
  • Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
  • Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
author
  • Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
  • Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
  • Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-69c7acd1-6da9-432d-bf3b-115352a6fd9b
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