Trace metals analysis of soil and edible plant leaves from abandoned municipal waste dumpsite in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria
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Municipal refuse may increase heavy metal concentration in soil, even at low levels, and their resulting long-term cumulative health effects are among the leading health concerns all over the world. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals in soils and edible plant leaves grown in an abandoned dumpsite along Akachi road in Owerri municipal were investigated. The soil samples were collected at each plot using a soil auger at the depth of 0-10 cm. Leaves dominant edible plant species were selected and collected from each sample plot. The samples were dried in an oven with forced air at 40 °C, milled to fine powder then digested with 10 ml concentrated HNO3 and 5 ml concentrated HClO4and were analyzed for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, and Zn using H183200 MultiParameter Bench Photometer. Result showed metals in the ranges in soils; Cr: 150-280 >Fe: 116.50-203 >Cu: 12.4-18.8 >Mn: 0-20 >Al: 0.08-0.16 >Zn: 0-1.4 mg kg-1 Dw and levels of metals in the edible plant leaves are in the order of: Zn>Fe>Cu>Al>Mn>Cr. Zn in particular was higher than FAO/WHO recommended limit. Application of Pollution Load Index and Ecological risk models showed the area is unpolluted and safe for use. Daily Metal Intake estimates showed that zinc is mostly consumed from the plant species. The trends in Transfer Factor for the heavy metal in vegetable samples studied were in order: Zn>Al>Cu>Mn>Fe>Cr. Therefore, abandoned solid waste dumpsites contained significant concentrations of heavy metals which are later absorbed and accumulated by plants growing it.
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