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2013 | 13 | 2 | 88–95
Article title

Topiramat – przegląd wybranych artykułów

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EN
Topiramate – review of selected papers
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PL
Abstracts
EN
Epilepsy is one of the most wide spread and serious paroxysmal disorders as well as 30% cases of resistant epilepsy. Topiramate (TPM) is one of many drugs of the second generation. Topiramate, a sulfonatesubstituted derivative of the monosacharide D-fructose, has been associated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic activity. The precise mechanism of TPM is unknown, is considered that TPM produce antiepileptic effects through enhancement of GABA-erge activity, inhibition of kainate/AMAP glutamate receptors, inhibition of voltage- sensitivite sodium and calcium channel, increases in potasium conductance and inhibition of carbonic anhydrase. Oral TPM is rapidly absorbed in patients with epilepsy with a relative bioavailability of near 80%. In many clinical trials, appeareddosages (i.e. 200 mg b.d.) of topiramate as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy were effective in reducing the frequency of seizures in patients with primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures, partial seizures. The cost-utility analysis included direct medical and social services cost in the UK, TPM was predicted to be cost-effective relative to standard treatment with valproic acid in adults with generalised or unclassified epilepsy cross a range of thresholds for the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained as was preferred over lamotrigine. However, in adults with partial epilepsy, lamotrigine appeared to be cost-effective relative to standard treatment with carbamazepine over gabapentin and topiramate. Treatment with topiramate is commonly associated with adverse events, among others especially with weight-loss and cognitive dysfunction. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitory effects of TPM may result in metabolic acidosis, renal calculi and hypohidrosis.
PL
Padaczka stanowi poważny problem epidemiologiczny z powodu znacznego rozpowszechnienia, a także terapeutyczny ze względu na odsetek przypadków lekooporności wynoszący 30%. W związku z tym położono nacisk na proces zsyntetyzowania nowych leków przeciwpadaczkowych (LPP), które będzie cechować większa skuteczność niż dotychczasowych. Pomimo wprowadzenia do obrotu ponad dziesięciu LPP drugiej generacji odsetek przypadków padaczki lekoopornej nie uległ zmianie, aczkolwiek u pojedynczych chorych wykazały one wyższość nad preparatami stosowanymi tradycyjnie. Do leków przeciwpadaczkowych drugiej generacji należy między innymi topiramat (TPM), cechujący się unikalną budową chemiczną (pochodna fruktopiranozy). W Polsce został wprowadzony do obrotu w 1998 roku. W niniejszej pracy opisano właściwości farmakokinetyczne, jak również zastosowanie TPM jako terapii dodanej w napadach padaczkowych uogólnionych i napadach częściowych oraz jako monoterapii w tego typu napadach. Topiramat ma wielokierunkowy mechanizm działania. Jest silnym blokerem kanałów sodowych, a także wpływa na kanały wapniowe, zwiększa aktywność receptorów GABA, blokuje typ kainowy/AMPA receptorów glutaminowych, jest słabym inhibitorem anhydrozy węglanowej. Omówiono dodatkowo możliwości zastosowania TPM w status epilepticus. Zwrócono uwagę na koszt leczenia topiramatem w porównaniu z takimi lekami, jak kwas walproinowy, oraz wpływ na jakość życia w porównaniu na przykład z lamotryginą. Opisano objawy uboczne, przyglądając się bliżej przyczynie spadku wagi przy zastosowaniu TPM oraz możliwości wystąpienia kwasicy metabolicznej, kamicy nerkowej oraz zmniejszonej potliwości. Podkreślono zalety stosowania topiramatu na tle innych LPP.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
13
Issue
2
Pages
88–95
Physical description
Contributors
  • Klinika Neurologii i Epileptologii z Oddziałem Udarowym Katedry Chorób Układu Nerwowego UM, neurologia@skwam.lodz.pl
References
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article
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-655763b6-81b8-42da-accc-61415076f0a9
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