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2017 | 80 | 57-76
Article title

The Yoruba Concept of Ola in African Society: A Historical Overview

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Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
This paper examines the concept of wealth among the Yoruba people in southwestern Nigeria. There is yet to be a historical appraisal of the understanding of the phenomenon of growth in wealth in African cultures. This paper therefore fills these obvious gap with an explanation of how Africans construe wealth within the domain of Yoruba society: the significance of wealth, the sources of acquiring wealth in Africa and how wealth has been used by the people throughout the ages from the pre-colonial to the post- colonial period of the Yoruba history in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the historical experience of slave trade, palm oil production, trading, land ownership, agricultural production and competition for power are the symbolic and characteristic features of wealth as an important component of livelihood of the Yoruba people of Africa. Finally, some directions for future research are suggested.
Keywords
EN
Africa   Culture   Power   Wealth   Yoruba  
Publisher

Year
Volume
80
Pages
57-76
Physical description
Contributors
  • Department of General Studies, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000 Ogbomoso, Nigeria
  • Department of History and International Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
References
  • (1) W.R. Bascom. Social Status, Wealth and Individual Difference Among the Yoruba. American Anthropologist, New series Vol.53. No.4, 1951. Pp. 490-505.
  • (2) T. Falola and Demola Babalola. “Religion and Economy in Pre-colonial Nigeria” in Jacob Olupona and Toyin Falola (eds.) Religion and Society in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books 1991. Pp. 151-169.
  • (3) D. Levinson. “Fulani”. In Encyclopeadia of World Cultures: Africa and the Middle East. Vol.9, Gale group.
  • (4) T. Falola and Demola Babalola. “Religion and Economy in Pre-colonial Nigeria”.
  • (7) W.R. Bascom. Social Status, Wealth and Individual Difference Among the Yoruba
  • (8) This statement is a popular saying among the Yoruba. It implies that for an individual to become wealthy in the society, he/she must be connected and relate with people to achieve wealth quickly
  • (9) J. Guyer (ed.) Money Matters: Instability, Values and Social Payments in the Modern History of West African communities. Portsmouth: New Hampshire: 1995. Pp. 24-26 . Se also, Wealth in people and wealth in Things- Introduction., Journal of African History vol. 36, No. 1, 1995, pp. 83-90.
  • (10) The ethnographic survey of some Nigerian languages and west Africa shows that there is evidence that the word wealth is found across the various people in Africa.
  • (12) W.R. Bascom. Social Status, Wealth and Individual Difference Among the Yoruba
  • (13) A. Fajana. Some Aspects of Yoruba Traditional Education. Odu Journal of African Studies. vol. 3, no.1, 1966. pp. 15-23.
  • (14) A. Fafunwa. History of Education in Nigeria. Ibadan: NPS Educational Books: 1974. Pp. 3-5
  • (15) The term pawnship is in this context is referred to as ‘indentured servants’ that is someone who serve in lieu of a debt due for payment.
  • (16) J. Guyer. Wealth in people and Self- Realisation in Equatorial Africa. Man, ns, 28: 243-265.
  • (17) In Nigeria, people contesting for elective positions are presumably assumed to be wealthy to give them advantage and opportunity of contesting for political positions. The politicians use their money to buy the electorates votes during party primary elections as flag bearers for their political parties
  • (18) A. Cornwall. Spending Power: Love, Money, and the Reconfiguration of Gender Relations in Ado-Odo, Southwestern Nigeria. American Ethnologist. 29, (4) pp. 963-980.
  • (19) Jurgen Harbamas. Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason, volume 2 of The Theory of Communicative Action, 1987. English translation by Thomas McCarthy, Boston: Beacon Press (first published in German in 1981).
  • (20) A. Cornwall. Spending Power: Love, Money, and the Reconfiguration of Gender Relations pp. 963-980.
  • (22) M. Oduyoye. Yoruba Names: Their Structures and Meanings. Ibadan: Daystar Press: 1982. p. 12
  • (24) A. Cornwall. Spending Power: Love, Money, and the Reconfiguration of Gender Relations
  • (25) W.R. Bascom. Social Status, Wealth and Individual Difference Among the Yoruba p. 490-505
  • (26) O. Ojo. More than Farmers’ Wives Yoruba women and Cash Crop Production, c1920-1927. In Adebayo Oyebade (ed.) The Transformation of Nigeria, Essays in honor of Toyin Falola. New Jersey: Africa World Press: 2002. Pp. 383-404.
  • (27) O. Ikime. History, The Historians and the Nation: The Voice of a Nigerian Historian. Ibadan: Heinmann Educational Books: 2006. Pp. 184-185.
  • (28) O. Ikime. History, The Historians and the Nation: The Voice of a Nigerian Historian. p. 185.
  • (31) W. R. Bascom. Social Status, Wealth and Individual Difference Among the Yoruba pp. 497-502
  • (33) I. O. Albert. Traditional Channels of Conflict Resolution in Ibadan. In Isaac Olawale Albert, Tinu Awe, Georges Herault, et Wuyi Omitoogun (eds.) Informal Channels of Conflict Resolution. Ibadan: IFRA: 2001. Pp. 13-35.
  • (34) I.O. Albert. Traditional Channels of Conflict Resolution in Ibadan. In Isaac Olawale Albert, Tinu Awe, Georges Herault, et Wuyi Omitoogun (eds.) Informal Channels of Conflict Resolution. Ibadan: IFRA: 2001. Pp. 13-35.
  • (35) I.O. Albert. Traditional Channels of Conflict Resolution in Ibadan. In Isaac Olawale Albert, Tinu Awe, Georges Herault, et Wuyi Omitoogun (eds.) Informal Channels of Conflict Resolution. Ibadan: IFRA: 1995. Pp. 13-35.
  • (36) A. B. Fafunwa. History of Education in Nigeria. Ibadan: NPS Educational Publishers:1974. P.56.
  • (37) A. B. Fafunwa. History of Education in Nigeria.
  • (38) Oral interview, MrGbadebo Osunbade, September 12, 2016.
  • (39) F.K. Ekechi. African Polygamy and Western Christian Ethnocentrism. Journal of African Studies. vol.3, No.3
  • (40) F.K. Ekechi. African Polygamy and Western Christian Ethnocentrism. Journal of African Studies. vol. 3, No.3
  • (41) O. Ojo. More than Farmers’ Wives: Yoruba women and Cash Crop Production, c.1920-1957. New Jersey: Africa World Press: 2002. pp. 383-404.
  • (42) Oral Interview with Mr. Ayoola P.O. September 2016.
  • (43) Oral interview with Mr. J.A. Adeleke, September, 21, 2016.
  • (44) T. Falola. The Yoruba Toll System: Its Operation and Abolition. Journal of African History vol.30, No.1, 1989,pp.69-88.
  • (50) W.R. Bascom. Social Status, Wealth and Individual Difference Among the Yoruba
  • (51) J.F.A. Ajayi. Promoting Religious Tolerance and Cooperation in the West African Region. The Example of Religious Pluralism and Tolerance Among the Yoruba. www.geocities.com/agboleyorubaschool/sacred accessed may 2006. See Also, N.A. Fadipe. The Sociology of the Yoruba. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press: 1970. p. 365
  • (52) Aje is a popular ritual deity in Yoruba culture associated with wealth and prosperity.
  • (53) W.R. Bascom. Ifa Divination: Communication Between Gods and Men in West Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press: 1969. pp. 3-4
  • (54) O.O. Olatunji. Features of Yoruba Oral Poetry. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press: 1984. pp. 109-118.
  • (55) W.R. Bascom. Ifa Divination: Communication Between Gods and Men in West Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University press: 1969. pp. 3-4
  • (56) The term oworin iwori A is the (odu ifa) verse that emerges after the divination has been performed by the Ifa diviner. This will determine the verses of Ifa poetry associated with wealth. The poem that follows is the verse in the odu that appears for the diviner to inform the client.
  • (57) A. Salami. IFA: A Complete Divination. Lagos: NIDD Publishers: 2002. 284-286
  • (58) A. Salami. IFA: A Complete Divination. p. 284.
  • (59) The term Oworin Iwori B is the (odu ifa) verse that emerges after the divination has been performed by the Ifa diviner. This will determine the verses of Ifa poetry associated with what to do to become wealthy. The poem that follows is the verse in the odu that appears for the diviner to inform the client.
Document Type
article
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-63945831-69a6-407a-8cb1-91286b524d40
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