Effects of Rates of NPK, Neem-Based Organic Fertilizer and their Combinations on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Yield and Leaf Nutrient Content in South-eastern Nigeria
Languages of publication
Herein, the effect of applying different rates of inorganic fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10) and organic fertilizer (neem seed) and their combinations on plant nutrient concentration and yield of okra was studied under field conditions at two locations within the University of Calabar Teaching and Research Farm. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Eleven treatments were applied. These were comprised of a control (no amendment), sole NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer and neem–based organic fertilizer applied at two rates (100 and 120 kg N/ha), combinations of 60 kg N/ha NPK+ 60 kg N/ha Neem, 50 kg N/ha NPK+ 50 kg N/ha Neem, 90 kg N/ha NPK + 30 kg N/ha Neem,25 kg N/ha NPK+ 75 kg N/ha Neem, 30 kg N/ha NPK + 90 kg N/ha Neem and 25 kg N/ha NPK+ 75 kg N/ha Neem. Amongst the two rates (100 and 120 kg N/ha) of sole application of either NPK or Neem-based organic fertilizer, the 120 kg N/ha recorded the highest number of fruits set and okra fresh fruit yield. The combination of 60 NPK + 60 Neem kg N/ha increased the yield (8.43 t/ha) and yield components of okra, while the 90 NPK + 30 Neem kg N/ha and 30 NPK + 90 Neem kg N/ha increased nutrient concentration in the okra plant. Thus, for sole application, the 120 kg N/ha application of either nutrient source is appropriate, but for optimum yield of okra in the tropical rainforest zone of Nigeria, the combination of both organic and inorganic fertilizer especially at 60 kg N/ha of each nutrient source, is recommended.
-  Adaikwu, A. O. and Ali, A. (2013). Assessment of some soil quality in Benue State. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 23(2), 66-75.
-  Awanlemhen, B. E., Ojeniyi, S. O., Awanlemhen, F. O., Ewulo, B. S. And Adereno, U. K. (2016). Soil Nutrients and Okra Performance in Integrated Application of Inorganic Fertilizers and Oil Palm Bunch Ash in Edo State, Nigeria. Proceedings of 50th Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN), Abia,Umudike, 1047-1051.
-  Esu, I. E. (2005). Characterization, Classification and Management Problems of the major soil orders in Nigeria. 26th Inaugural lecture held at University of Calabar, Calabar. ISBN 978-007-148-2, 1-66.
-  Firoz, Z. A. (2009). Impact of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and yield of okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench in hill slope condition. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 34(4), 713-722.
-  Iremiren, G. O., Ipinmoroti, R. R. andAkanbi, O. S. O. (2013). Performance of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) and Maize (Zea mays) under Okra/Maize Intercrop as Influenced by Nutrient Sources at Ibadan, Nigeria. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 2(2), 190-201.
-  Iren, O. B., John, N. M. and Imukm E. A. (2012). Effects of Sole and Combined Applications of Organic Manures and Urea on Growth, Crude Protein and Nutrient Uptake of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairiaoccidentalis, Hook f.). Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Environment, 2(1), 78-85.
-  Iren, O. B.,John, N. M. and Imuk, E. A. (2014).Effects of sole and combined applications of organic manures and urea on soil properties and yield of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, Hook f.). Nigerian Journal of Soil Science, 24(1), 125-133.
-  Iren, O. B., Ijah, C. J., Asawalam, D. O. and Osodeke, V. E. (2016a).Comparative effect of pig manure, urea fertilizer and their combinations on the performance of Amaranthuscruentusin a Rainforest Ultisol, Nigeria. Integrity Research Journal-Journal of Agricultural Science and Practice, 1, 52-57.
-  Iren, O. B.,Ediene, V. F., Uwah, I. D. and Ekpenyong, V. E. (2016b).Influence of varied ratios of cassava peels and pig manure - based compost on soil properties and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (l) Moench). Proceedings of 50th Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN), Abia, Umudike, 1061 – 1064.
-  John, N. M., Effiong, G. S., Ibia, T. O., Etokeren, U. E. And Idiong, B. E. (2009). Growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L) on an acidic coastal plain soil fertilized with compost and inorganic fertilizers. Journal of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Ecology, 2(3), 313-321.
-  Makinde, E. A., Ayoola, O. I. and Akande, M. O. (2007). Effect of organic mineral fertilizer application on the growth and yield of egusi melon. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 1(1), 15-19.
-  Makinde, E.A., Ayeni, L.S. andOjeniyi, S.O. (2010). Morphological Characteristics of Amaranthus Cruentus L. as Influenced by Organic, Organomineral and Mineral Fertilizers in Southwestern Nigeria.New York Science J. 3(5), 130-134.
-  Muhmood, A., Majeed, A., Niaz, A., Javid, S., Shah, S. S. and Shah, A. H. (2015). Nutrients Uptake and the Yield of Okra and Carrot in Response to Bioslurry and Inorganic N Fertilizers.International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 7(5), 297-305.
-  Nnah, M. B., Isirimah. C. B., Ezekiel, P. O. andUmesi, N. (2016). Comparative effects of organic manures and NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) on Ultisol. Nigrian Journal of Soil Science, 26, 101-109.
-  OrgoNeem (2015). Neem Seed Fertilizer. http://4.imimg.com/data4/OO/HH/MY-29209/orgo-neem-organic-product.pdf Retrieved on 26th December, 2015.
-  Smith, M. A. K., Tolorun, T. P. andAdeniji, O.S. (2001): Effect of combined mulch and fertilizer on weed growth and okra (Abelmoshus esculentus L. Moench) yield in Tropical environment. In; Proceedings of 35th Annual conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 103-112.
-  Soil Survey Staff (1999). Soil Taxonomy: A basic system for soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys: 2nd ed. USDA-NRCS Agric. Hand book 436. US Govt. Printing Office, Washington. D. C. 869 pp.
-  Subbalakshmi, L., Muthukrishnan, P. And Jeyaraman, S. (2012). Neem products and their agricultural applications. Journal of Bio pesticides, 5, 72-76.
-  Udo, E. J., Ibia, T.O., Ogunwale, J. A., Ano, A.O and Esu, I. E., (2009). Manual of Soil, Plant and Water Analyses. Lagos: Sibon Books, Publishers Ltd., Nigeria 183 pp.
-  K.N. Tiwari, P.K. Mal, R.M. Singh, A. Chattopadhyay. Response of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.) to drip irrigation under mulch and non-mulch conditions. Agricultural Water Management Volume 38, Issue 2, 1 December 1998, Pages 91-102
-  Nipaporn Sengkhamparn, René Verhoef, Henk A. Schols, Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul, Alphons G.J. Voragen. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Carbohydrate Research Volume 344, Issue 14, 28 September 2009, Pages 1824-1832
-  Joshi, A. B. & M. W.Hardas, 1956. Alloploid nature of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Nature 178: 1190.
-  Kuwada, H., 1957. Crossability in the reciprocal crosses between Abelmoschus esculentus and A. manihot. and the characters and meiosis in F1 hybrids. Jap. J. Breed. 7: 93–102
-  Kuwada, H., 1957b. Crosscompatibility in the reciprocal crosses between amphidiploid and its parents (Abelmoschus esculentus and A. manihot) and the characters and meiotic division in the hybrids obtained among them. Jap. J. Breed. 7: 103–111.
-  Pal, B. P., H. B.Singh & V.Swarup, 1952. Taxonomic relationships and breeding possibilities of species of Abelmoschus related to okra (A. esculentus). Bot. Gaz. 113: 455–464.
-  Roy, R. P. & R. P.Jha, 1958. A semi-asynaptic plant of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (= Hibiscus esculentus L.). Cytologia 23: 356–361.
Publication order reference