An approach for butterfly conservation through setting up a garden in an urban area, Kolkata, India
Languages of publication
Biodiversity declines due to unplanned urbanization as well as anthropogenic activities. It has already been documented that native flora and fauna are disappearing as an impact of biodiversity loss. There should be urgent need to restore our lost habitats through conservation techniques. The present study was aimed to conserve and restore lost habitat of pollinators with special reference to butterflies in an urban area through setting up a garden. The study was divided into two phases. In the first phase survey of butterflies found within an unmanaged garden in the campus (Lady Brabourne College, Kolkata) was performed prior to construction activity (May 2012 to October, 2012) and it was observed previously total 31 species of butterfly visited the garden. Developmental activities caused a sharp decline in their population causing an approach to relocate our garden in another area of college campus. In the second phase, setting up a garden in an alternative sites of same campus with plantation of host plants preferred by butterfly species was done and observed for butterfly visit. A slow increase in sighting over a study period of two years (between October, 2012 to June, 2015) was recorded. The results clearly indicate that total 43 species of butterflies were recorded in the garden including 9 species, which were not seen before and with 8 species completing their life cycles. In conclusion, declining of butterfly species can be increased and conserved through setting up of a garden. Presently the garden is flourishing but problems of increase in natural enemies as birds and other anthropogenic disturbances such as excess noise and vibration, street lighting, human interference etc. should be addressed in future within present conservation approach.
- Department of Zoology, Lady Brabourne College, P-1/2, Suhrawardy Avenue, Kolkata 700017, India
- Vijaygarh Jyotish Ray College, 8/2 Bijoygarh, Kolkata 700032, India
- Department of Zoology, Lady Brabourne College, P-1/2, Suhrawardy Avenue, Kolkata 700017, India, firstname.lastname@example.org
-  B. Czech, P. R. Krausman, P.K. Devers, BioScience 50 (2000) 593-601.
-  P. N. Crisp, K. J. M. Dickinson, G. W. Gibbs, Biological Conservation 83 (2) (1998) 209-220.
-  M. L. McKinney, BioScience 52 (10) (2002) 883-890.
-  M. L. McKinney, Urban Ecosystem 11 (2008) 161-176.
-  A. Sih, M. C. O. Ferrari, D. J. Harris, Evolutionary Applications 4 (2011) 367-387.
-  J. P. Swaddle, C. D. Francis, J. R. Barber, C. B. Cooper, C. C. M. Kyba, D. N. Dominoni, G. Shannon, E. Aschehoug, S. E. Goodwin, A. Y. Kawahara, D. Luther, K. Spoelstra, M. Voss, T. Longcore, Trends in Ecology and Evolution (2015) 1-11.
-  R. Lodh, B. K. Agarwala, Tropical Ecology 57 (2) (2016) 231-242.
-  J. Owen, The ecology of a garden: the first fifteen years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1991).
-  R. M. Smith, K. J. Gaston, P. H. Warren, K. Thompson, Landscape Ecology 20 (2005) 235-253.
-  K. Thompson, K. C. Austin, R. M. Smith, P. H. Warren, P.G. Angold, K. J. Gaston, Journal of Vegetation Science 14 (2003) 71-78.
-  W. B. Watt, F. S. Chew, L. R. G. Snyder, A. G. Watt, D. E. Rothschild, Oecologia Berlin 27 (1968) 1-22.
-  P. R. Ehrlich, D. E. Breedlove, P. F. Brussard, M.A. Sharp, Ecology 53 (1972) 243-247.
-  S. B. Weiss, R. R. White, D. D. Murphy, P. R. Ehrlich, Oikos 50 (1987) 161-166.
-  S. B. Weiss, D. D. Murphy, R. R. White, Ecology 69 (1988) 1486-1496.
-  R. B. Blair, A. E. Alan E. Launer, Biological Conservation 80 (1997) 113-125.
-  P. R. Ehrlich, P. H. Raven, Evolution 18 (1964) 586-608.
-  N. Janz, S. Nylin, N. Wahlberg, BMC Evolutionary Biology 6 (2006) DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-6-4.
-  J. R. Ferrer-Paris, A. Sanchez-Mercado, A. L. Viloria, J. Donaldson. PLoS ONE 8 (2013) e63570. Doi:10.1371/Journal.pone.0063570.
-  M. Wallisdevries, C. Swaay, C. Plate, Current Zoology 58(3) (2012) 384-391.
-  S. Gandhi, D. Kumar, Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 3(4) (2015) 476-480.
-  G. H. Munshi, S. A. Moiz, Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 21 (2) (1967) 127-128.
-  A. D. Tiple, A. M. Khurad, R. L. H. Dennis, Journal of Insect Science 11 (65) (2011) www.insectscience.org/11.65.
-  M. Newsom-Brighton, Organic Gardening 30 (1) (1983) 46-48.
-  H. G. Heal, International Journal of Environmental Studies 4 (1973) 223-229.
-  G. Mathew, M. Anto, Current Science 93 (3) (2007) 337-347.
-  R. M. Pyle, Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49 (1995) 397-411.
-  K Kunte. Butterflies of Peninsular India, Universities Press (Hyderabad) and Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru, 2000.
-  S. Sondhi, K. Kunte, Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8 (2016) 9053-9124.
-  S. Mukherjee, S. Banerjee, G. K. Saha, P. Basu, G. Aditya, Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8 (2015) 210-221.
-  M. A. Goddard, A. J. Dougill, T. G. Benton, Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25(2) (2010) 90-98.
-  T. Ramesh, K. Jahir Hussain, M. Selvanayagam, K. K. Satpathy, M. V. R. Prasad, International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 2(4) (2010) 75-85.
-  M. Rundlof, H. G. Smith, Journal of Applied Ecology 43(6) (2016) 1121-1127, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01233.x
-  J. Chen, C. H. Cannon, H. B. Hu, Trend in Plant Science 14 (2009) 584-589.
-  A. Ghosh, A. Mukherjee, Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 4(2) (2016) 34-39.
-  R. L. H. Dennis, T. G. Shreeve, H. Van Dyck, Oikos 102 (2003) 417-426.
-  R. L. H. Dennis, T. G. Shreeve, H. Van Dyck, Biodiversity and Conservation 15 (2006) 1943-1966.
-  Y. van der Hoek, Natureza and Conservacao, Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation 13 (2015) 88-92.
-  T. W Davies, J. Bennie, K. J. Gaston, Biology Letters 8 (2012) 764-767, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0216
-  K. G. Geffen, E. van Eck, R de Boer, R. van Grunsven, L. Salis, F. Berendse, E. M. Veenendaal, Insect Conservation and Diversity 8 (2015) 282-287.
Publication order reference