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2010 | 10 | 3 | 200-204
Article title

Czego dowiedzieliśmy się o ADHD dzięki strukturalnym badaniom neuroobrazowym?

Content
Title variants
EN
What have we learned about ADHD from the structural neuroimaging studies?
Languages of publication
EN PL
Abstracts
EN
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) belongs to the most common behavioural disorders of childhood. ADHD can be conceptualised as a diverse developmental disorder characterised by a variable clinical expression, which is underlain by heterogeneity leading to the neural system dysfunction. Neuroimaging for childhood psychiatric disorders has the potential to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of childhood mental disorders. In recent years, neuroimaging techniques have been used with increasing frequency in attempts to identify structural and functional abnormalities in the brains of children with ADHD. Structural imaging methods have localized abnormalities in key brain regions and neural networks associated with cognition and behaviour consistent with the clinical picture of ADHD. Structural imaging studies suggest that the ADHD pathophysiology would be conditioned by the dysfunction in frontosubcortical pathways. Currently increasing is the evidence that other brain regions such as the cerebellum, the parietal lobes and temporal lobes may also have an important role in this condition. The findings generally suggest deficits in the brain areas mentioned above, with decreased volumes. However, it is also evident that some areas show enlargement as a compensation for the observed deficits. Apart from the issue of reliability, there is a more basic question about how the results of neuroimaging studies are to be interpreted.
PL
Zaburzenie hiperkinetyczne (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) należy do najczęściej obserwowanych zaburzeń behawioralnych okresu dzieciństwa. Może być rozpatrywane jako zróżnicowane zaburzenie rozwojowe, charakteryzujące się różnorodną ekspresją kliniczną, u podłoża którego leżą różne czynniki prowadzące do dysfunkcji systemu nerwowego. Badania neuroobrazowe u pacjentów z zaburzeniami psychicznymi wieku rozwojowego przyczyniają się do przybliżenia wyjaśnienia patofizjologii zaburzeń psychicznych u dzieci. W ostatnich latach obserwuje się znaczący wzrost częstości wykorzystania techniki neuroobrazowania do identyfikacji odchyleń w mózgu dzieci z zaburzeniem hiperkinetycznym. Strukturalne badania neuroobrazowe pokazują nieprawidłowości w okolicach mózgu i sieci połączeń kluczowych, które mogą być podłożem objawów ADHD, takich jak zaburzenia uwagi i behawioralne. Wyniki tych badań sugerują dysfunkcje połączeń czołowo-podkorowych jako podłoże patofizjologii ADHD. Obecnie wzrasta liczba doniesień o roli innych regionów mózgu, takich jak móżdżek, płaty ciemieniowe i skroniowe w etiologii tego zaburzenia. Wskazuje się głównie na deficyty we wspomnianych regionach, spadek objętości. Niektóre prace mówią o powiększeniu części obszarów mózgu jako kompensacji obserwowanych deficytów. Odkładając na bok brak jednoznacznych wyników uzyskanych za pomocą neuroobrazowania, należy zastanowić się nad ich interpretacją.
Discipline
Publisher

Year
Volume
10
Issue
3
Pages
200-204
Physical description
Contributors
  • Katedra i Klinika Psychiatrii CM w Bydgoszczy UMK w Toruniu. Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Aleksander Araszkiewicz
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Document Type
article
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-5df1d842-fa50-4d9b-9fce-431b4f101b30
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