Reliability and Validity of New Tests on Agility and Skill for Children Soccer Players
Languages of publication
Recently developed the agility and skill tests (AS) were reevaluated to assess the children’s agility together with the soccer shoots to ball for goal. Children (male) soccer players (N=68) (age= 11.6 ± 0.5 yrs; height=147 ± 6.6 cm; weight= 35.5 ± 5.6kg) participated in this study. Test – Retest and comparisons, including 20m Sprint, Long Jump, T- Drill Test, AS (with ball), AS (goal success) and Zigzag Tests were used to assess the children’s sprinting, jump power, and agility with shooting ball. All handled test results showed that there were significant differences between the tests - retest sessions (p < 0.01) except for the 20 m Sprint. There were a near perfect correlations between test and retest values (r=0.90-0.99). A higher level of correlation between the AS tests (goal success, with ball) (r=0.99) was found. There were very high levels of correlations between the AS (goal success and with ball) tests and Zigzag tests (r=0.71, r=0.70 respectively). These results suggest that the AS tests are reliable and valid agility and skill tests for children players. Because the AS tests have unique values and are composed of soccer specific agility and active shooting skills, they are very important in identifying the talent and ability of children.
- Department of Physical Education and Sport, Education Faculty, the University of Kırıkkale, Turkey
- School of Physical Education and Sport, Kırıkkale University, Turkey
- Physical Education and Sports School, Hitit University, Çorum, Turkey
- Department of Statistics, Art & Science Faculty, the University of Kırıkkale, Turkey
- Aandstad A and Sımon E.V. Reliability and validity of the soccer specific INTER fıeld test. Journal of Sciences. 2013; 13: 1383-1392.
- Alricsson M., Harms –Ringdahl K., and Werner S. Reliability of sports related functional tests with emphasis on speed and agility in young athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001; 11:229-232.
- Ali A. Measuring soccer skill performance - a review. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011; 21: 170-183.
- Ali A., Wıllıams C., Hulse M., Strudwıck A., Reddın J., Howarth L., Eldred j., Hırst M. , and Mcgregor S. Reliability and validity of two tests of soccer skill. Journal of Sports sciences. 2007; 25(13): 1461-1470.
- Baumgartner T.A., Chung H. Confidence limits for intraclass reliability coefficients.Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 2001; 5: 179-188.
- Bangsbo J., Norregaard, L. and Thorso F. Activity profile of competition soccer. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences. 1991; 16:110-116.
- Bate D. Soccer skills practice. In: Reilly T, editor. Science and Soccer. London: E & FN Spon; 1996.
- Bullock W., Panchuk D., Broatch J., Christian R., Stepto N.K. An integrative test of agility, speed and skill in soccer: effects of exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2012; 15(5):431-6.
- Chamari K., Hachana, Y., Kaouech, F., Jeddi, R., Moussa-Chamari, I., & Wisløff U. Endurance training and testing with the ball in young elite soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39: 24–28.
- Commetti G., Maffiuletti , N.A., Pousson , M ., Chatard , J.C. and Maffulli N. Isokinetic strength and anaerobic power of elite, subelite and amateur French soccer players. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2001; 22: 45-51.
- Da Silva J. F., Guglielmo, L. G., Carminatti, L. J., De Oliveira, F. R., Dittrich, N., & Paton C. D. Validity and reliability of a new field test (Carminatti’s test) for soccer players compared with laboratory-based measures. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2011; 29; 1621–1628.
- Gabbett T. J. The development of a test of repeatedsprint ability for elite women’s soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010; 24: 1191–1194.
- Gabbett T.J., Kelly J.N., Sheppard J.M. Speed, change of direction speed, and reactive agility of rugby league players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008; 22: 174-181.
- Hopkins W.G. A scale of magnitude for effect statistics. 2002: Available from, www.sportsci.org/resource/stats/index.html.
- Hori N., Newton R.U., Kawamori N., McGuigan M.R., Kraemer W. J., Nosaka K. Reliability of performance measurements derived from ground reaction force data during countermovement jump and the influence of sampling frequency. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 874-82.
- Kowacks E.M., Senden J.M., Brouns F. Urine colour, osmolality and specific electrical conductance are not accurate measures of hydration status during post-exercise rehydration. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 1999; 39(1): 47-53.
- Kutlu M., Yapıcı H., Yoncalık O., Celik S. Comparison of a new test for agility and skill in soccer with other agility tests. J Hum Kinet. 2012; 33:143-50.
- Little T., Williams A.G. Specificity of acceleration, maximum speed, and agility in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2005; 19(1): 76-78.
- Lockie R.G., Murphy, A.J., Knight, T.J. and Janse De Jonge X.A.K. Factors that differentiate acceleration ability in field sport athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011; 25: 2704-2714.
- Lockie R.G., Schultz A.B., Callaghan S.J., Jeffriess M.D., Berry S.P. Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT). J Sports Sci Med. 2013; 1;12(1):88-96.
- Oliver J.L., Meyers R.W. Reliability and generality of measures of acceleration, planned agility, and reactive agility. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2009; 4: 345-354.
- Pearson A. Speed and agility and quickness for soccer. London :A&C B lack. 2001.
- Psotta R., Blahus, P., Cochrane, D. J., & Martin A. J. The assessment of an intermittent high intensity running test. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2005; 45: 248–256.
- Reilly T., and Holmes M. A preliminary analysis of selected soccer skills. Physical Education Rewiew. 1983; 6:64-71.
- Sekulıc D., Spasıc M., Mırkov D., Cavar M., and Sattler T. Gender – Specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2013; 3:802-811.
- Svensson M., and Drust B. Testing soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2005; 23: 601 -618.
- Sporis G., Jukic I., Ostojic S.M., Milanovic D. Fitness profiling in soccer: physical and physiologic characteristics of elite players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 1947-1953.
- Sporis G., Jukic, I., Milanovic, L., and Vucetic V. Reliability and factorial validity of agility tests for soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010; 24: 679–686.
- Sporis G., Milanovic, Z., Trajkovic N., and Joksimovic A. Correlation between sped, agility and quıckness( saq) ın elite young soccer players. Acta Kinesiologica. 2011; 2: 36-41.
- Stolen T., Chamari, K., Castagna , C.,and Wisloff U. Physiology of soccer : An update. Sports Medicine. 2005; 35: 501-536.
- Thomas J.R., Nelson J.K. Research Methods in Physical Activity (4th ed.).Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2001.
- Young W. and Farrow. D. A review of agility: practical applications for strength and Conditioning Journal 28,24-29.
- Young W. B., Willey B. Analysis of a reactive agility ﬁeld test. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2010; 13: 376–378.
Publication order reference