DETERMINATION OF CAPACITY AND RULES OF THE VARIABILITY OF MAXIMUM FORCE USING NONLINEAR MATHEMATICAL MODELS: A CASE STUDY
Languages of publication
The aim of this study is to determine the capacity and the variability of maximum force rules measured 1 RM for eight muscle groups (back-hip extensors, legs extensors, arm extensors, back extensors, shoulder and arms extensors, shoulder joint flexors, hip and knee extensors, trunk flexors). The determination was performed on the experimental results of the top basketball center player using repeated measurements and nonlinear mathematical models methods. Changes in maximum force were induced with 8 months of weight lifting training and analised with nonlinear regression analysis within 95% confidence interval. The results indicate that from all the models applied only the Asymptotic Regression, Michaelis-Menten and Gompertz Growth models had satisfactory performance and provided solid solutions to the given problem. This means that the models developed in this study properly and reliably determine the capacity and predicted changes in the maximum force (1 RM) for all eight monitored muscle groups.
- Faculty of Management in Sport, Alpha University, Belgrade, Serbia, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran
- Faculty of Management in Sport, Alpha University, Belgrade, Serbia
- Faculty of Management in Sport, Alpha University, Belgrade, Serbia
- Faculty of Sport, University Union-Nikola Tesla, Belgrade, Serbia
- School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
- Aagaard, P., Simonsen, E.B, Andersen, J.L., Magnusson, P., Halkjaer-Kristensen, J., Dyhre Poulsen, P. (2002). Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93 (4), 1318–1326.
- Blagojevic, M., Milosevic, B.M., Aleksic, V., Papadimitrioiu, A., Dopsaj, M. (1998). The comparative analysis of force generation velocity and its dimensions at maximal voluntary contractions in isometric and dynamic muscle work regime. In: K. Hakkinen (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Weightlifting and Strength Training (pp. 273–274). Lahti, Finland: Juvaskyla.
- Bosquet, L.J., Montpetit, D.A, Mujika, I. (2007). Effects of tapering on performance: A meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39 (8), 1358–1365.
- Carpinelli, N.R., (2008). The size principle and a critical analysis of the unsubstantiated heavier-is-better recommendation for resistance training. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 6 (2), 67–86.
- Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100 (3), 363–406.
- Ericsson, K.A., Nandagopal, K., Roring, R.W. (2009). Toward a science ofexceptionalachievement: Attaining superior performance through deliberate practice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1172, 199–217. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1393.001.
- Furandzijev, V., Abadzijev, I. (2003). Osnovi na podgotovkata na elitni i podrastvasci sportisti: Adaptacija na kletčno i molekuljarno nivo. [Basis of preparation of elite and young athletes: The adptacija of cell and molecular level]. Sofija, Bulgaria: Tip-top pres.
- Ivancevic, V., Ivancevic, T. (2006). Natural biodynamics. Singapore: World Scientific
- Milosevic, B.M., Stefanovic, D., Dopsaj, M., Blagojevic, M. (1998a). The change in leg extensor muscle involvement velocity at weightlifting from deep squat, at different weights and maximal velocity. In: K. Hakkinen (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Weightlifting and Strength Training (pp. 271–272). Lahti, Finland: Juvaskyla.
- Milosevic, B.M., Cirkovic, Z., Mihajlovic, M., Blagojevic, M., Dopsaj, M. (1998b). The analysis of changes in the parameters of velocity, force and its dimensions at lifting different weights from deep squat at different velocities. In: K. Hakkinen (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Weightlifting and Strength Training (pp. 268–270). Lahti, Finland: Jyvaskyla.
- Milosevic, B.M., Blagojevic, M., Pilipovic, S., Tosic, B. (2000). The muscle contraction and the force production. In: H. Youlian, P.J. David (eds.), Proceedings of the XVIII International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sport (pp. 183–186). Hong Kong.
- Milosevic, M., Dopsaj, M., Blagojevic, M., Mudric, R. (2002). Changes in force and motor unit involvement velocity (MUIV) induced by plyometric training and the method of incomplete eccentric muscle response. In: K. Hakkinen, W.J. Kraemer, J. Tihanyi (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rdInternational Conference on Strength Training (pp. 99–100). Budapest, Hungary.
- Milosevic, M. (2010). Physical Preparation of Elite Athletes: Standardization of Management Processes. Belgrade: APP.
- Milosevic, B.M., Mudric, M., Mudric, R., Milosevic, M.M. (2012). Using the mind in reprogramming the limits of muscle force in the process of creating champions. Sport Science & Practice, 2 (5), 39–58.
- Milosevic, B.M., Milosevic, M.M. (2013a). Special physical education: Scientific basis. Belgrade. Serbia: CEDIP
- Milosevic, B.M., Milosevic, M.M. (2013b). Model for assessing the physical status, as well as prediction and programming of training and sports performance of a soccer player. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13 (4), 479–488. DOI: 10.7752/jpes.2013.04076.
- Milosevic, B.M., Milosevic, M.M., Nemec, P., Zivotic, D., Radjo, I. (2014a). A new approach to development of human maximal muscular force. Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline, 17 (5), 70–80.
- Milosevic, B.M., Dzoljic, E., Milosevic, M.M., Jourkesh, M., Behm, D. (2014b). The Analysis of Muscle Force Development with Trained and Elite Athletes. Fiziologia-Physiology, 24, 1 (81), 5–12.
- Motulsky, J.H., Christopouls, A. (2003). Fitting models to biological data using linear and nonlinear regression. A practical guide to curve fitting. San Diego: GraphPad Softwere.
- Schneider, W. (1997). The impact of expertise on performance: Illustrations fromdevelopmental research on memory and sports. High Ability Studies, 8 (1), 7–18. DOI: 10.1080/1359813970080102.
- Schumaker, P.R., Solieman, K.O., Chen, H. (2010). Sports data mining. New York, NY: Springer.
- Tucker, R., Collins, M. (2012). What makes champions? A review of the relative contribution of genes and training to sporting success. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46 (8), 555–561. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090548.
- Vaeyens, R., Güllich, A., Warr, C.R., Philippaerts, R. (2009). Talent identifi cation and promotion programmes of Olympic athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27 (13), 1367–1380. DOI: 10.1080/02640410903110974.
- Watts, G.D., Bates, M.D. (2007). Nonlinear regression analysis and its applications. New York, NY: Wiley.
Publication order reference