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2017 | 71 | 225-245
Article title

Molecular mechanisms of neoplasia

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Molekularne mechanizmy kierujące nowotworzeniem
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The evolution of normal cells into neoplastic cells involves many stages. This paper describes six characteristics of tumour cells: maintenance of cell division-promoting signals, resistance to exogenous growth inhibitors, avoidance of apoptosis, acquisition of the ability to undergo an infinite number of divisions, induction of angiogenesis as well as activation of the ability to invade and metastasise. The listed and described characteristics of tumor cells are associated with genomic instability and the production of inflammation. Genomic instability protes the formation of a diverse pool of cells, and the accumulation of traits of tumor cells leads to inflammation. The progress of science has enabled the addition of two further features acquired by cells during the process of neoplasia – modification of cellular metabolism and avoidance of recognition by the immune system.
Ewolucja komórki prawidłowej w nowotworową obejmuje wiele etapów. W pracy opisano sześć cech charakteryzujących komórki nowotworowe: utrzymanie sygnałów stymulujących podziały komórkowe, oporność na egzogenne inhibitory wzrostu, unikanie apoptozy, nabywanie zdolności do nieskończonej liczby podziałów, indukcję angiogenezy oraz aktywację zdolności do inwazji i przerzutowania. U podłoża wymienionych cech leży nie tylko niestabilność genomu promująca wytworzenie zróżnicowanej genetycznie puli komórek, ale także stan zapalny, który wymaga wystąpienia wielu cech charakterystycznych dla komórek nowotworowych. Postęp badań pozwolił dodać dwie kolejne cechy nabyte przez komórki w czasie nowotworzenia – modyfikację metabolizmu komórkowego oraz unikanie rozpoznania przez system immunologiczny.
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