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2017 | 17 | 1 | 5–14
Article title

Can we predict cognitive deficits based on cognitive complaints?

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PL
Czy na podstawie skarg poznawczych można przewidywać deficyty poznawcze?
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Abstracts
EN
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether the intensity of cognitive complaints can, in conjunction with other selected variables, predict the general level of cognitive functions evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Current reports do not show clear conclusions on this subject. Some data indicate that cognitive complaints have a predictive value for low scores in standardised tasks, suggesting cognitive dysfunction (e.g. mild cognitive impairment). Other data, however, do not support the predictive role of complaints, and show no relationship to exist between the complaints and the results of cognitive tests. Material and methods: The study included 118 adults (58 women and 60 men). We used the MoCA test, a self-report questionnaire assessing the intensity of cognitive complaints (Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cognitive Impairment – PROCOG and Dysexecutive Questionnaire/Self – DEX-S), and selected subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R PL). On the basis of the results from the MoCA test, two separate groups were created, one comprising respondents with lower results, and one – those who obtained scores indicating a normal level of cognitive function. We compared these groups according to the severity of the complaints and the results obtained with the other methods. Logistic regression analysis was performed taking into account the independent variables (gender, age, result in PROCOG, DEX-S, and neurological condition) and the dependent variable (dichotomized result in MoCA). Results: Groups with different levels of performance in MoCA differed in regards of some cognitive abilities and the severity of complaints related to semantic memory, anxiety associated with a sense of deficit and loss of skills, but provided similar self-assessments regarding the efficiency of episodic memory, long-term memory, social skills and executive functions. The severity of complaints does not allow us to predict the level of cognitive functions. Older age, male sex, and neurological diseases all increase the likelihood of lower MoCA outcomes. Conclusions: Because of the large prevalence of complaints in the population of patients with neurologic deficits and healthy persons alike, and the difficulty in determining the significance of the complaints for the clinical psychological diagnosis/prognosis, it is necessary to expand the research to include biomarkers of brain pathology and other factors.
PL
Cel: Celem podjętych badań było określenie, czy nasilenie skarg na osłabienie poznawcze wraz z innymi wybranymi zmiennymi pozwala przewidywać ogólny poziom funkcji poznawczych ocenianych Montrealską Skalą Funkcji Poznawczych (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA). Aktualne doniesienia nie zawierają jednoznacznych wniosków na ten temat. Część danych wskazuje, że skargi na osłabienie poznawcze mają wartość predyktywną dla niskich wyników uzyskiwanych w zadaniach standaryzowanych, sugerujących rozwój dysfunkcji poznawczych (np. łagodnych zaburzeń poznawczych), inne natomiast nie potwierdzają predyktywnej roli skarg i nie wykazują powiązań między skargami na osłabienie poznawcze a rezultatami testów poznawczych. Materiał i metoda: W badaniach uczestniczyło 118 dorosłych osób, w tym 58 kobiet i 60 mężczyzn. Wykorzystano test MoCA, kwestionariusze samoopisowe oceniające nasilenie skarg poznawczych (PatientReported Outcomes in Cognitive Impairment – PROCOG i Dysexecutive Questionnaire/Self – DEX-S) oraz wybrane podtesty Skali Inteligencji D. Wechslera dla Dorosłych, wersji zrewidowanej (WAIS-R PL). Na postawie wyniku MoCA wydzielono dwie grupy osób: o niższym wyniku i o wyniku wskazującym na prawidłowy poziom funkcji poznawczych. Porównano te grupy ze względu na nasilenie skarg oraz wyniki uzyskane przy użyciu pozostałych metod. Następnie wykonano analizę regresji logistycznej z uwzględnieniem zmiennych niezależnych (płeć, wiek, wynik w PROCOG i DEX-S, stan neurologiczny) i zmiennej zależnej (zdychotomizowany wynik w MoCA). Wyniki: Grupy o różnym poziomie wykonania MoCA różniły się pod względem wybranych zdolności poznawczych oraz nasilenia skarg dotyczących pamięci semantycznej, niepokoju związanego z poczuciem deficytów i utraty nabytych umiejętności, podobnie natomiast oceniały sprawność pamięci epizodycznej i długotrwałej, kompetencje społeczne oraz funkcje wykonawcze. Nasilenie skarg nie pozwala przewidywać poziomu funkcji poznawczych. Starszy wiek, płeć męska i obciążenia neurologiczne zwiększają prawdopodobieństwo obniżenia wyników w MoCA. Wnioski: Ze względu na powszechność skarg w populacji osób obciążonych neurologicznie i osób zdrowych, a także z uwagi na trudności w określaniu znaczenia skarg w klinicznej diagnozie/prognozie psychologicznej należy poszerzyć badania z uwzględnieniem biomarkerów patologii mózgowej i innych zmiennych.
Discipline
Year
Volume
17
Issue
1
Pages
5–14
Physical description
Contributors
  • Department of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Institute of Psychology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin, Poland
author
  • Provincial Specialist Hospital, Biała Podlaska, Poland
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Document Type
article
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.psjd-55337137-b5ec-4ec8-bb55-7f3de14bbd4c
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