CYTOTOXICITY OF CHITOSAN BASED THERMO-SENSITIVE HYDROGELS INTENDED FOR NERVOUS TISSUE ENGINEERING
Languages of publication
The damage to the central nervous system is one of the most difficult cases of trauma to treat. Over the last few years, increasing attention has been focused on the development of strategies based on biomaterials for regeneration and repair of the spinal cord injury. In particular, materials in the form of hydrogels based on chitosan are being actively investigated due to their intrinsic properties that are favorable in spinal cord tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to develop a thermo-gelling chitosan solution that will be prepared with the use of acids that naturally occur in the human nervous tissue. For this purpose, two types of chitosan gels were prepared based on chitosan glutamate and chitosan lactate. In order to reduce toxic action of the system obtained gels were conditioned in distilled water with pH 5.00. The changes in the structures of systems obtained were determined with the use of FTIR method. Biocompatibility was primarily evaluated through cytotoxicity testing by MTT assay with respect to mouse fibroblast cells.
- 1. Hoffman AS; (2002) Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 54, 3-12.
- 2. Qiu Y, Park K; (2001) Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 53, 321-39.
- 3. Censi R, Di Martino P, Vermonden T, Hennink WE; (2012) Hydrogels for protein delivery in tissue engineering. J Control Release 161, 680-92.
- 4. Wang L, Stegemann JP; (2010) Thermogelling chitosan and collagen composite hydrogels initiated with beta-glycerophosphate for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 31, 3976-85.
- 5. Grolik M, Szczubiałka K, Wowra B, Dobrowolski D, Orzechowska-Wylęgała B, Wylęgała E, Nowakowska M; (2012) Hydrogel membranes based on genipin-cross-linked chitosan blends for corneal epithelium tissue engineering. J Mater Sci Mater Med 23, 1991-2000.
- 6. Fatimi A, Chabrot P, Berrahmoune S, Coutu JM, Soulez G, Lerouge S; (2012) A new injectable radiopaque chitosan-based sclerosing embolizing hydrogel for endovascular therapies. Acta Biomater 8, 2712-21.
- 7. Dash M, Chiellini F, Ottenbrite RM, Chiellini E; (2011) Chitosan - A versatile semi-synthetic polymer in biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 36, 981–1014.
- 8. Tsai WB, Chen YR, Liu HL, Lai JY; Fabrication of UV-crosslinked chitosan scaffolds with conjugation of RGD peptides for bone tissue engineering. Carbohyd Polym 85, 129–37.
- 9. Zakhem E, Raghavan S, Gilmont RR, Bitar KN; (2012) Chitosan-based scaffolds for the support of smooth muscle constructs in intestinal tissue engineering. Biomaterials 33, 4810-7.
- 10. Hsu SH, Kuo WC, Chen YT, Yen CT, Chen YF, Chen KS, Huang WC, Cheng H; (2013) New nerve regeneration strategy combining laminin-coated chitosan conduits and stem cell therapy. Acta Biomater 9, 6606-15.
- 11. Xu H, Yan Y, Li S; (2011) PDLLA/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan/NGF conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration. Biomaterials 32, 4506-16.
- 12. Chiu LL, Janic K, Radisic M; (2012) Engineering of oriented myocardium on three-dimensional micropatterned collagen-chitosan hydrogel. Int J Artif Organs 35, 237-50.
- 13. Chatelet C, Damour O, Domard A; (2001) Influence of the degree of acetylation on some biological properties of chitosan films. Biomaterials 22:261-8.
- 14. Deng C, Zhang P, Vulesevic B, Kuraitis D, Li F, Yang AF, Griffith M, Ruel M, Suuronen EJ; (2010) A collagen–chitosan hydrogel for endothelial differentiation and angiogenesis. Tissue Eng Part A 16, 3099-109.
- 15. Teijeiro-Osorio D, Remuñán-López C, Alonso MJ; (2009) Chitosan/cyclodextrin nanoparticles can efficiently transfect the airway epithelium in vitro. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 71:257-63.
- 16. Loh JW, Yeoh G, Saunders M, Lim LY; (2010) Uptake and cytotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles in human liver cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 249, 148-57.
- 17. Fehrenbacher A, Steck E, Roth W, Pahmeier A, Richter W; (2006) Long-term mechanical loading of chondrocyte-chitosan biocomposites in vitro enhanced their proteoglycan and collagen content. Biorheology 43, 709-20.
- 18. Gnavi S, Barwig C, Freier T, Haastert-Talini K, Grothe C, Geuna S; (2013) The use of chitosan-based scaffolds to enhance regeneration in the nervous system. Int Rev Neurobiol 109, 1-62.
- 19. Yuan Y, Zhang P, Yang Y, Wang X, Gu X; (2004) The interaction of Schwann cells with chitosan membranes and fibers in vitro. Biomaterials 25, 4273-8.
- 20. Nomura H, Zahir T, Kim H, Katayama Y, Kulbatski I, Morshead CM, Shoichet MS, Tator CH; (2008) Extramedullary chitosan channels promote survival of transplanted neural stem and progenitor cells and create a tissue bridge after complete spinal cord transaction. Tissue Eng Part A 14; 649-65.
- 21. Li X, Yang Z, Zhang A, Wang T, Chen W; (2009) Repair of thoracic spinal cord injury by chitosan tube implantation in adult rats. Biomaterials 30, 1121-32.
- 22. Young VR, Borgonha S; (2000) Nitrogen and amino acid requirements: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology amino acid requirement pattern. J Nutr 130, 1841-9.
- 23. Armstrong M, Jonscher K, Reisdorph NA; (2007) Analysis of 25 underivatized amino acids in human plasma using ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21, 2717-26.
- 24. Mark LP, Prost RW, Ulmer JL, Smith MM, Daniels DL, Strottmann JM, Brown WD, Hacein-Bey L; (2001) Pictorial review of glutamate excitotoxicity: fundamental concepts for neuroimaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22; 813-24.
- 25. Rinholm JE, Hamilton NB, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, Bergersen LH, Attwell D; (2011) Regulation of oligodendrocyte development and myelination by glucose and lactate. J Neurosci 31, 538-48.
- 26. Regenold WT, Phatak P, Makley MJ, Stone RD, Kling MA; (2008) Cerebrospinal fluid evidence of increased extra-mitochondrial glucose metabolism implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple sclerosis disease progression. J Neurol Sci 275, 106-12.
- 27. Nyberg F, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, Sharma HS, Neuropeptides in the Spinal Cord, 1995, Elsevier, ISBN: 978-0-444-81719-8
- 28. Modrzejewska Z, Nawrotek K, Zarzycki R, Douglas T; (2013) Structural Characteristics of Thermosensitive Chitosan Glutaminate Hydrogels. Progress in the Chemistry and Application of Chitin and its Derivatives 8, 93-105.
Publication order reference