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2015 | 15 | 1 | 22-27
Article title

Stop walking when talking, czyli związek funkcji poznawczych z kontrolą chodu

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EN
Stop walking when talking – a relationship between cognitive functions and gait control
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EN PL
Abstracts
EN
Nowadays, more and more scientific reports highlight the importance of cognitive skills in motor control. It is believed that movement also engages higher mental processes such as executive functions, attention and working memory. Executive functions include cognitive processes, such as the ability to initiate, plan, modify and control behaviour. They play an integrative role in the processing of information, including both cognitive and behavioural elements, necessary for goal-directed and effective action. Executive functions play a key role in the regulation of gait in the case of taking new steps or modifying previously learned motor programmes. Neuroimaging studies show that there is a common pattern of neural activity for walking, executive functions and attention, involving the frontal cortex and cortico-subcortical neuronal network. Many studies have shown that the impairment of executive functions may contribute to gait disturbances and increased risk of falls. Executive functions allow movement patterns to be modified, and enable the introduction of adaptive compensatory strategies in response to changing internal and external environmental stimuli. Studies with dual-task paradigm also stress the importance of attention in maintaining the control over gait. The addition of a cognitive task slows gait in the elderly. The incidence of falls is higher in subjects with dementia. The identification of cognitive risk factors of falls may allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods to be developed. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between cognitive function, i.e. executive functions and attention, and the risk of falls.
PL
Współcześnie powstaje coraz więcej doniesień naukowych podkreślających znaczenie sprawności funkcji poznawczych w kontroli motorycznej. Uważa się, że chód angażuje także wyższe procesy psychiczne: funkcje wykonawcze, uwagę i pamięć operacyjną. Funkcje wykonawcze obejmują takie procesy poznawcze, jak zdolność do inicjowania, planowania, modyfikowania i kontroli zachowania. Pełnią integracyjną funkcję w przetwarzaniu informacji – obejmują elementy poznawcze i behawioralne niezbędne do skutecznego działania, zorientowanego na cel. Funkcje wykonawcze odgrywają kluczową rolę w regulacji chodu w przypadku podejmowania nowych czynności bądź modyfikowania uprzednio wyuczonych programów ruchowych. Jak dowodzą badania neuroobrazowe, dla chodu, funkcji wykonawczych i uwagi istnieje wspólny wzorzec aktywności neuronalnej, obejmujący korę czołową i jej korowo-podkorową sieć neuronalną. W wielu badaniach wykazano, że osłabienie funkcji wykonawczych może przyczyniać się do powstawania zaburzeń chodu i zwiększać ryzyko upadków. Funkcje wykonawcze umożliwiają modyfikowanie wzorców ruchowych, jak również wprowadzanie adaptacyjnych strategii kompensacyjnych w odpowiedzi na zmieniające się bodźce – pochodzące ze środowiska zarówno wewnętrznego, jak i zewnętrznego. Badania w paradygmacie podwójnego zadania podkreślają też znaczenie uwagi w utrzymaniu kontroli chodu. Dodanie zadania angażującego funkcje poznawcze przekłada się w grupie ludzi starszych na spowolnienie chodu. Częstość upadków jest wyższa u osób z otępieniem. Identyfikacja poznawczych czynników ryzyka upadków może pozwolić na opracowanie skuteczniejszych metod diagnostycznych i terapeutycznych. Celem niniejszej pracy jest próba wyjaśnienia mechanizmów relacji między funkcjami poznawczymi – funkcjami wykonawczymi i uwagą – a ryzykiem upadków.
Discipline
Year
Volume
15
Issue
1
Pages
22-27
Physical description
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article
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bwmeta1.element.psjd-52bd6282-f2b0-4fe9-a545-75843d806c58
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